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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 5, 2021
Registration No. 333-      
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
PASSAGE BIO, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
82-2729751
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
Two Commerce Square
2001 Market Street, 28th Floor
Philadelphia, PA 19103
(267) 866-0311
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Bruce Goldsmith, Ph.D.
President and Chief Executive Officer
Passage Bio, Inc.
Two Commerce Square
2001 Market Street, 28th Floor
Philadelphia, PA 19103
(267) 866-0311
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
Robert A. Freedman, Esq.
Effie Toshav, Esq.
Ryan Mitteness, Esq.
Fenwick & West LLP
555 California Street
San Francisco, CA 94104
(415) 875-2300
Edgar B. Cale, Esq.
General Counsel and Corporate Secretary
Passage Bio, Inc.
Two Commerce Square
2001 Market Street, 28th Floor
Philadelphia, PA 19103
(267) 866-0311
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement.
If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box: ☐
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box: ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering: ☐

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If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earliest effective registration statement for the same offering: ☐
If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☒
If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I. D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of
Securities to be Registered(1)
Amount
to be
Registered(1)(2)
Proposed
Maximum
Offering Price
Per Security(3)
Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price
Amount of
Registration Fee(3)
Primary Offering of Securities:
Common stock, $0.0001 par value per share
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share
Debt securities
Warrants
Subscription rights
Units
Subtotal:
Primary Offering of Common Stock:
Common stock, $0.0001 par value per share
$ 125,000,000 $ 13,637.50(4)
Total
(1)
There is being registered hereunder an indeterminate number of shares of (a) common stock, (b) preferred stock, (c) debt securities, (d) warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities of the Registrant, (e) subscription rights to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities of the Registrant, and (f) units, consisting of some or all of these securities in any combination, as may be sold from time to time by the Registrant. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or as units with other securities registered hereunder. There is also being registered hereunder an indeterminate number of shares of common stock, preferred stock and debt securities as shall be issuable upon conversion, exchange or exercise of any securities that provide for such issuance.
(2)
Pursuant to Rule 416(a), this registration statement also covers any additional securities that may be offered or issued in connection with any stock split, stock dividend or similar transaction.
(3)
In accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, except with respect to the $125,000,000 to be paid in connection with the primary offering of common stock described in the table, which is being paid with the filing of this registration statement, the registrant is deferring payment of all registration fees and will pay the registration fees subsequently in advance or on a “pay-as-you-go” basis.
(4)
Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

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EXPLANATORY NOTE
This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

a base prospectus, which covers the offering, issuance and sale by us of our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, subscription rights to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and/or units consisting of some or all of these securities; and

a sales agreement prospectus covering the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $125,000,000 of our common stock that may be issued and sold under a sales agreement dated March 5, 2021 with Cowen and Company, LLC.
The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The sales agreement prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus.
 

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PROSPECTUS
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_passage-4c.jpg]
Common Stock, Preferred Stock,
Debt Securities, Warrants, Subscription Rights and Units
From time to time, we may offer shares of our common stock or preferred stock, debt securities, warrants to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, subscription rights to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and/or units consisting of some or all of these securities, in any combination, together or separately, in one or more offerings, in amounts, at prices and on the terms that we will determine at the time of the offering and which will be set forth in a prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus.
You should read this prospectus, the information incorporated, or deemed to be incorporated, by reference in this prospectus, and any applicable prospectus supplement and related free writing prospectus carefully before you invest.
Our common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “PASG.” On March 4, 2021 the last reported sales price for our common stock was $19.43 per share. None of the other securities we may offer are currently traded on any securities exchange. The applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing on The Nasdaq Global Market or any securities market or exchange of the securities covered by the prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus.
An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the information under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page 4 of this prospectus before investing in our securities.
Common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, subscription rights and/or units may be sold by us to or through underwriters or dealers, directly to purchasers or through agents designated from time to time. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such underwriters or agents and any applicable fees, discounts or commissions, details regarding over-allotment options, if any, and the net proceeds to us will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is March 5, 2021

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of an automatic registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Under this shelf registration process, from time to time, we may sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings.
We have provided to you in this prospectus a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities under this shelf registration process, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. We may also add, update or change in the prospectus supplement any of the information contained in this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus and the prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement; provided that, if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date — for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement — the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement. You should read both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Neither we, nor any agent, underwriter or dealer have authorized anyone to give you any information or to make any representation other than the information and representations contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement. We and any agent, underwriter or dealer take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information others may give you. You may not imply from the delivery of this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, nor from a sale made under this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, that our affairs are unchanged since the date of this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or that the information contained in any document incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement or any sale of a security. This prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement may only be used where it is legal to sell the securities.
In this prospectus, unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “Passage,” “Passage Bio,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to Passage Bio, Inc., a Delaware corporation.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights information contained in other parts of this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus from our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, and our other filings with the SEC listed below under the heading “Incorporation of Information by Reference.” This summary may not contain all the information that you should consider before investing in securities. You should read the entire prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus carefully, including “Risk Factors” and the financial data and related notes and other information incorporated by reference, before making an investment decision. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
Our Company
We are a genetic medicines company focused on developing transformative therapies for rare, monogenic central nervous system, or CNS, disorders with limited or no approved treatment options. Our vision is to finally fulfill the promise of gene therapy by developing groundbreaking therapies that transform the lives of patients with rare monogenic CNS diseases. The field of genetic medicine is rapidly expanding and we believe we have a differentiated approach to developing treatments for rare, monogenic CNS disorders that enables us to select and advance product candidates with a higher probability of technical and regulatory success. We have entered into a strategic research collaboration with the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania’s, or Penn’s Gene Therapy Program, or GTP, headed by Dr. James Wilson, a leader in the genetic medicines field. We also leverage our close working relationship with Penn’s Orphan Disease Center to develop historical and prospective comparable natural history patient profiles for comparison to participants in interventional trials. Through this collaboration we have assembled a deep portfolio of genetic medicine product candidates, including our three lead product candidates, all of which we retain global rights to: PBGM01 for the treatment of GM1 gangliosidosis, or GM1, PBFT02 for the treatment of frontotemporal dementia, or FTD, and PBKR03 for the treatment of Krabbe disease. We currently have active INDs for our three lead programs in the United States, and clinical trial authorizations for our Imagine 1 Trial for PBGM01 from the United Kingdom’s Medicines Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency, or MHRA, and Health Canada. We expect to initiate patient enrollment for Phase 1/2 trials for GM1 in the first quarter of 2021, for FTD in the first half of 2021 and for Krabbe disease in the first half of 2021. We will also continue to explore entering into new collaborations to build our pipeline.
Our research collaboration with GTP provides us with access to one of the premier research institutions in the world for the discovery and preclinical development of genetic medicine product candidates and exclusive rights to certain rare, monogenic CNS disorders. As part of this collaboration, we have exclusive rights to all discovery work and IND-enabling research for up to 17 rare, monogenic CNS indications that we select. In addition to our three lead product candidates, we have four ongoing research programs and an option to license ten additional programs from GTP. Further, we have exclusive rights, subject to certain limitations, to technologies resulting from the discovery program for Passage Bio products developed with GTP, such as novel capsids, toxicity reduction technologies and delivery and formulation. We have global commercial rights to all of our product candidates and believe that our approach to developing therapies for rare, life-threatening diseases that are currently underserved presents an opportunity to efficiently advance our product candidates through clinical development, regulatory approval and ultimately to commercialization.
We founded Passage Bio with the intent to build a differentiated CNS genetic medicines company delivering transformative therapies to patients by combining our team’s experience in rare and neurological disease development, manufacturing and commercialization with the pioneering research expertise of GTP in gene therapy. We are purposefully focusing on rare, monogenic CNS disorders for which we believe our genetic medicine approach provides distinct technical advantages based on decades of research by GTP. GTP conducts rigorous preclinical studies to identify promising product candidates. Our collaboration provides us with access to cutting edge capabilities and innovation in the field of genetic medicine research, including in capsid engineering and next-generation capsid libraries, vector engineering, transgene design and gene therapy modalities, animal disease models and related studies for lead-optimization of product candidates. Further, we believe our team’s deep clinical development experience in rare and neurological diseases will enable well planned clinical trials with the potential for efficient advancement to regulatory approval. In addition, we are engaging with key opinion leaders, practitioners and patient advocacy groups in the field of
 
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rare, monogenic CNS disorders that provide strategic input and help inform our clinical development activities. We believe that our ability to execute on the above tenets provides us with product candidates that have an improved profile for clinical development and an enhanced probability of success.
The Securities We May Offer
With this prospectus, we may offer common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, subscription rights to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, and/or units consisting of some or all of these securities in any combination. Each time we offer securities with this prospectus, we will provide offerees with a prospectus supplement that will contain the specific terms of the securities being offered. The following is a summary of the securities we may offer with this prospectus.
Common Stock
We may offer shares of our common stock, par value $0.0001 per share.
Preferred Stock
We may offer shares of our preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share, in one or more series. Our board of directors or a committee designated by the board will determine the dividend, voting, conversion and other rights of the series of shares of preferred stock being offered. Each series of preferred stock will be more fully described in the particular prospectus supplement that will accompany this prospectus, including redemption provisions, rights in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or the winding up, voting rights and rights to convert into common stock.
Debt Securities
We may offer general obligations, which may be secured or unsecured, senior or subordinated and convertible into shares of our common stock or preferred stock. In this prospectus, we refer to the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities together as the “debt securities.” Our board of directors will determine the terms of each series of debt securities being offered.
We will issue the debt securities under an indenture between us and a trustee. In this document, we have summarized general features of the debt securities from the indenture. We encourage you to read the indenture, which is an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
Warrants
We may offer warrants for the purchase of debt securities, shares of preferred stock or shares of common stock. We may issue warrants independently or together with other securities. Our board of directors will determine the terms of the warrants.
Subscription Rights
We may offer subscription rights for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. We may issue subscription rights independently or together with other securities. Our board of directors will determine the terms of the subscription rights.
Units
We may offer units consisting of some or all of the securities described above, in any combination, including common stock, preferred stock, warrants and/or debt securities. The terms of these units will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The description of the terms of these units in the related prospectus supplement will not be complete. You should refer to the applicable form of unit and unit agreement for complete information with respect to these units.
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We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in July 2017 under the name Passage Bio, Inc. Our principal executive office is located at Two Commerce Square, 2001 Market Street, 28th Floor, Philadelphia, PA, 19103, and our telephone number is (267) 866-0311. Our website address is www.passagebio.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of, and is not incorporated by reference into, this prospectus. Investors should not rely on any such information in deciding whether to purchase our securities.
 
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RISK FACTORS
An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. The prospectus supplement applicable to each offering of securities will contain a discussion of the risks applicable to an investment in our securities. Prior to making a decision about investing in our securities, you should carefully consider the specific factors discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement, together with all of the other information contained or incorporated by reference in the prospectus supplement or appearing or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should also consider the risks, uncertainties and assumptions discussed under Part II, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, which is incorporated herein by reference, and may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC in the future. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our operations.
 
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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus and documents incorporated herein by reference contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained or incorporated herein by reference are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “could,” “intend,” “target,” “project,” “contemplate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential” or “continue” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. All statements other than statements of historical fact contained or incorporated herein by reference, including without limitation statements regarding our plans to develop and commercialize our product candidates, the timing of our ongoing or planned clinical trials, the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals, the clinical utility of our product candidates, our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy, our expectations about the willingness of healthcare professionals to use our product candidates, the sufficiency of our cash and cash equivalents, the expected impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operations, and the plans and objectives of management for future operations and capital expenditures are forward-looking statements. We intend that such forward-looking statements be subject to the safe harbors created thereby
These forward-looking statements are based on the current beliefs and expectations of our management and are subject to significant risks and uncertainties. If underlying assumptions prove inaccurate or unknown risks or uncertainties materialize, actual results may differ materially from current expectations and projections. Factors that might cause such a difference include those discussed in Part II, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, as well as those discussed in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any free writing prospectus. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this prospectus or, in the case of documents referred to or incorporated by reference, the date of those documents.
All subsequent written or oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. We do not undertake any obligation to release publicly any revisions to these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as may be required under applicable U.S. securities law. If we do update one or more forward-looking statements, no inference should be drawn that we will make additional updates with respect to those or other forward-looking statements.
 
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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with respect to the securities offered hereby. This prospectus, which constitutes a part of the registration statement, does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement, the exhibits filed therewith or the documents incorporated by reference therein. For further information about us and the securities offered hereby, reference is made to the registration statement, the exhibits filed therewith and the documents incorporated by reference therein. Statements contained in this prospectus regarding the contents of any contract or any other document that is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement are not necessarily complete, and in each instance, we refer you to the copy of such contract or other document filed as an exhibit to the registration statement.
We are subject to the informational requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act and are required to file annual, quarterly and other reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains an Internet site (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and various other information about us. You may also inspect the documents described herein at our principal executive offices, Two Commerce Square, 2001 Market Street, 28th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19103, during normal business hours.
Information about us is also available at our website at www.passagebio.com. However, the information on our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
 
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INCORPORATION OF INFORMATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those other documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. A Current Report (or portion thereof) furnished, but not filed, on Form 8-K shall not be incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings we make with the SEC under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the termination of any offering of securities made by this prospectus:

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on March 3, 2021;

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on February 17, 2021 and February 19, 2021; and

the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on February 18, 2020 under Section 12 of the Exchange Act, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description.
We will furnish without charge to you, on written or oral request, a copy of any or all of such documents that has been incorporated herein by reference (other than exhibits to such documents unless such exhibits are specifically incorporated by reference into the documents that this prospectus incorporates). Written or oral requests for copies should be directed to Passage Bio, Inc., Attn: Investor Relations, Two Commerce Square, 2001 Market Street, 28th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19103, and our telephone number is (267) 866-0311. See the section of this prospectus entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” for information concerning how to obtain copies of materials that we file with the SEC.
Any statement contained in this prospectus, or in a document, all or a portion of which is incorporated by reference, shall be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any document incorporated by reference modifies or supersedes such statement. Any such statement so modified or superseded shall not, except as so modified or superseded, constitute a part of this prospectus.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds to us from the sale of our securities under this prospectus. Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus for general corporate purposes, which may include funding research, clinical development, process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, increasing our working capital, reducing indebtedness, acquisitions or investments in businesses, products or technologies that are complementary to our own and capital expenditures. We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement our intended use for the net proceeds received from the sale of any securities. Pending the application of the net proceeds, we intend to invest the net proceeds in short-term or long-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities.
 
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may sell the securities covered by this prospectus to one or more underwriters for public offering and sale by them, and may also sell the securities to investors directly or through agents. We will name any underwriter or agent involved in the offer and sale of securities in the applicable prospectus supplement. We have reserved the right to sell or exchange securities directly to investors on our own behalf in jurisdictions where we are authorized to do so. We may distribute the securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

at negotiated prices.
We may directly solicit offers to purchase the securities being offered by this prospectus. We may also designate agents to solicit offers to purchase the securities from time to time. We will name in a prospectus supplement any agent involved in the offer or sale of our securities. Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, an agent will be acting on a best efforts basis, and a dealer will purchase securities as a principal for resale at varying prices to be determined by the dealer.
If we utilize an underwriter in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, we will execute an underwriting agreement with the underwriter at the time of sale and we will provide the name of any underwriter in the prospectus supplement that the underwriter will use to make resales of the securities to the public. In connection with the sale of the securities, we, or the purchasers of securities for whom the underwriter may act as agent, may compensate the underwriter in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions. The underwriter may sell the securities to or through dealers, and those dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agent.
We will provide in the applicable prospectus supplement any compensation we pay to underwriters, dealers, or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”), the aggregate maximum discount, commission or agency fees or other items constituting underwriting compensation to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker-dealer shall be fair and reasonable. We may enter into agreements to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and to reimburse them for certain expenses. We may grant underwriters who participate in the distribution of our securities under this prospectus an option to purchase additional securities in connection with the distribution.
The securities we offer under this prospectus may or may not be listed through The Nasdaq Global Market or any other securities exchange. To facilitate the offering of securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include short sales of the securities, which involves the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than we sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their option to purchase additional securities. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.
 
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We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and they may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in these sale transactions will be an underwriter and will be identified in the applicable prospectus supplement. In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus. The financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.
We will file a prospectus supplement to describe the terms of any offering of our securities covered by this prospectus. The prospectus supplement will disclose:

the terms of the offer;

the names of any underwriters, including any managing underwriters, as well as any dealers or agents;

the purchase price of the securities from us;

the net proceeds to us from the sale of the securities;

any delayed delivery arrangements;

any options under which underwriters, if any, may purchase additional securities from us;

any underwriting discounts, commissions or other items constituting underwriters’ compensation, and any commissions paid to agents;

in a subscription rights offering, whether we have engaged dealer-managers to facilitate the offering or subscription, including their name or names and compensation;

any public offering price; and

other facts material to the transaction.
We will bear all or substantially all of the costs, expenses and fees in connection with the registration of our securities under this prospectus. The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business.
Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise or the securities are sold by us to an underwriter in a firm commitment underwritten offering. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the second business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
General
The following description summarizes the most important terms of our capital stock. Because it is only a summary, it does not contain all the information that may be important to you. For a complete description, you should refer to our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws, which are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, and to the applicable provisions of Delaware law.
Our authorized capital stock consists of 300,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, and 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share.
As of December 31, 2020, there were 45,917,084 shares of our common stock outstanding, and no shares of preferred stock outstanding.
Common Stock
Dividend rights
Subject to preferences that may apply to any shares of preferred stock outstanding at the time, the holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends out of funds legally available if our board of directors, in its discretion, determines to issue dividends and then only at the times and in the amounts that our board of directors may determine. For more information about our dividend policy, see the section entitled “Dividend Policy” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
Voting rights
Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. We have not provided for cumulative voting for the election of directors in our restated certificate of incorporation, which means that holders of a majority of the shares of our common stock are able to elect all of our directors. Our restated certificate of incorporation establishes a classified board of directors, divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms. Only one class of directors will be elected at each annual meeting of our stockholders, with the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms.
No preemptive or similar rights
Our common stock is not entitled to preemptive rights, and is not subject to conversion, redemption or sinking fund provisions.
Right to receive liquidation distributions
Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, the assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders would be distributable ratably among the holders of our common stock and any participating preferred stock outstanding at that time, subject to prior satisfaction of all outstanding debt and liabilities and the preferential rights of and the payment of liquidation preferences, if any, on any outstanding shares of preferred stock.
Preferred Stock
We had no shares of preferred stock outstanding as of December 31, 2020.
Our board of directors is authorized, subject to limitations prescribed by Delaware law, to issue preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each series and to fix the designation, powers, preferences and rights of the shares of each series and any of their qualifications, limitations or restrictions, in each case without further vote or action by our stockholders. Our board of directors is also able to increase or decrease the number of shares of any series
 
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of preferred stock, but not below the number of shares of that series then outstanding, without any further vote or action by our stockholders. Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of our common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company price of our common stock and the voting and other rights of the holders of our common stock. We have no current plan to issue any shares of preferred stock.
Stock options
As of December 31, 2020, we had outstanding options to purchase an aggregate 6,928,111 shares of our common stock, with a weighted-average exercise price of $12.36.
Warrants
We had no outstanding warrants to purchase our securities as of December 31, 2020.
Registration Rights
Pursuant to the terms of our amended and restated investors’ rights agreement, as of December 31, 2020, the holders of 18,848,517 shares of our common stock were entitled to rights with respect to the registration of these shares under the Securities Act as described below. We refer to these shares collectively as registrable securities.
Form S-1 registration rights
The holders of at least 30% of the then-outstanding registrable securities may make a request to us for the registration under the Securities Act of at least 30% of the registrable securities (or a lesser percent if the anticipated aggregate offering price, net of selling expenses, would exceed $10 million). Within ten (10) days following such request, we are obligated to provide notice of such request to all holders of registrable securities, other than the initiating holders, to file a registration statement under the Securities Act covering all registrable securities that the initiating holders requested to be registered and any additional registrable securities requested to be included in such registration by any other holders.
We are only required to file two registration statements that are declared effective upon exercise of these demand registration rights. We may postpone taking action with respect to such filing not more than once during any 12-month period for a total period of not more than 60 days, if after receiving a request for registration, we furnish to the holders requesting such registration a certificate signed by our Chief Executive Officer stating that, in the good faith judgment of our board of directors, it would be materially detrimental to us and our stockholders for such registration statement to either become effective or remain effective for as long as such registration statement otherwise would be required to remain effective.
The underwriters of any underwritten offering will have the right to limit the number of shares registered by these holders if they determine that marketing factors require limitation, in which case the number of shares to be registered will be apportioned, in proportion (as nearly as practicable), to the number of registrable securities owned by each holder or in such other proportion as shall mutually be agreed to by all such selling Holders. However, the number of shares to be registered by these holders cannot be reduced unless all other securities are first entirely excluded from the underwriting.
Form S-3 registration rights
Any holder or group of holders of at least 25% of then-outstanding registrable securities can request that we register all or part of their shares on Form S-3 if we are eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3 and if the aggregate price to the public of the shares offered is at least $3 million. Within ten (10) days following such request, we are obligated to provide notice of such request to all holders of registrable securities, other than the initiating holders, to file a registration statement under the Securities Act covering all registrable securities that the initiating holders requested to be registered and any additional registrable securities requested to be included in such registration by any other holders.
 
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The stockholders may only require us to effect two registration statements on Form S-3 in a 12-month period. We may postpone taking action with respect to such filing not more than once during any 12-month period for a total period of not more than 60 days, if after receiving a request for registration, we furnish to the holders requesting such registration a certificate signed by our Chief Executive Officer stating that, in the good faith judgment of our board of directors, it would be materially detrimental to us and our stockholders for such registration statement to either become effective or remain effective for as long as such registration statement otherwise would be required to remain effective.
The underwriters of any underwritten offering will have the right to limit the number of shares registered by these holders if they determine that marketing factors require limitation, in which case the number of shares to be registered will be apportioned, in proportion (as nearly as practicable), to the number of registrable securities owned by each holder or in such other proportion as shall mutually be agreed to by all such selling Holders. However, the number of shares to be registered by these holders cannot be reduced unless all other securities are first entirely excluded from the underwriting.
Piggyback registration rights
If we register any of our securities for public sale, holders of then-outstanding registrable securities or their permitted transferees will have the right to include their registrable securities in the registration statement. However, this right does not apply to a registration relating to employee benefit plans, a registration relating to a corporate reorganization, a registration on a form that does not include substantially the same information as would be required to be included in a registration statement covering the sale of registrable securities or a registration in which the only common stock being registered is common stock issuable upon conversion of debt securities that are being registered.
The underwriters of any underwritten offering will have the right to limit the number of shares registered by these holders if they determine that marketing factors require limitation, in which case the number of shares to be registered will be apportioned to the selling holders, in proportion (as nearly as practicable), to the number of registrable securities owned by each selling holder or in such other proportion as shall mutually be agreed to by all such selling Holders. However, the number of shares to be registered by these holders cannot be reduced (i) unless all other securities (other than securities to be sold by us) are first entirely excluded from the offering, (ii) below 30% of the total number of securities included in such offering, unless such offering is the initial public offering, in which case the selling holders may be excluded further if the underwriters make the determination for a limitation and no other stockholder’s securities are included in such offering.
Expenses of registration rights
We generally will pay all expenses, other than underwriting discounts and commissions.
Expiration of registration rights
The registration rights described above will expire, with respect to any particular holder of these rights, on the earlier of the third anniversary of our IPO or with respect to each holder, such time following this offering as all registrable securities of such holder may be sold without limitation within a three-month period pursuant to Rule 144.
Anti-takeover provisions
The provisions of the DGCL, our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws could have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another person from acquiring control of our company. These provisions, which are summarized below, may have the effect of discouraging takeover bids. They are also designed, in part, to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to negotiate first with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with an unfriendly or unsolicited acquirer outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging a proposal to acquire us because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.
 
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Delaware law
We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the DGCL regulating corporate takeovers. In general, Section 203 prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a period of three years following the date on which the person became an interested stockholder unless:

prior to the date of the transaction, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder, (i) shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers and (ii) shares owned by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

at or subsequent to the date of the transaction, the business combination is approved by the board of directors of the corporation and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66.67% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.
Generally, a business combination includes a merger, asset or stock sale, or other transaction or series of transactions together resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. An interested stockholder is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns or, within three years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status, did own 15% or more of a corporation’s outstanding voting stock. We expect the existence of this provision to have an anti-takeover effect with respect to transactions our board of directors does not approve in advance. We also anticipate that Section 203 may also discourage attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares of common stock held by stockholders.
Restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws provisions
Our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws include a number of provisions that could deter hostile takeovers or delay or prevent changes in control of our company, including the following:

Board of directors vacancies.   Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws authorize only our board of directors to fill vacant directorships, including newly created seats. In addition, the number of directors constituting our board of directors is permitted to be set only by a resolution adopted by a majority vote of our entire board of directors. These provisions would prevent a stockholder from increasing the size of our board of directors and then gaining control of our board of directors by filling the resulting vacancies with its own nominees. This makes it more difficult to change the composition of our board of directors but promotes continuity of management.

Classified board.   Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws provide that our board of directors is classified into three classes of directors, each with staggered three-year terms. A third party may be discouraged from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us as it is more difficult and time consuming for stockholders to replace a majority of the directors on a classified board of directors.

Stockholder action; special meetings of stockholders.   Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that our stockholders may not take action by written consent, but may only take action at annual or special meetings of our stockholders. As a result, a holder controlling a majority of our capital stock would not be able to amend our restated bylaws or remove directors without holding a meeting of our stockholders called in accordance with our restated bylaws. Further, our restated bylaws provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by a majority of our board of directors, the chairman of our board of directors, our Chief Executive Officer or our President, thus prohibiting a stockholder from calling a special meeting. These provisions might delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or for stockholders controlling a majority of our capital stock to take any action, including the removal of directors.
 
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Advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and director nominations.   Our restated bylaws provide advance notice procedures for stockholders seeking to bring business before our annual meeting of stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at our annual meeting of stockholders. Our restated bylaws also specify certain requirements regarding the form and content of a stockholder’s notice. These provisions might preclude our stockholders from bringing matters before our annual meeting of stockholders or from making nominations for directors at our annual meeting of stockholders if the proper procedures are not followed. We expect that these provisions might also discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our company.

No cumulative voting.   The DGCL provides that stockholders are not entitled to the right to cumulate votes in the election of directors unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws do not provide for cumulative voting.

Directors removed only for cause.   Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that stockholders may remove directors only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding common stock.

Amendment of charter provisions.   Any amendment of the above expected provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation would require approval by holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding common stock.

Issuance of undesignated preferred stock.   Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by the stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock with rights and preferences, including voting rights, designated from time to time by our board of directors. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock would enable our board of directors to render more difficult or to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by merger, tender offer, proxy contest or other means.

Choice of forum.   Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the DGCL, our restated certificate of incorporation or our restated bylaws; or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. The enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ certificates of incorporation has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that a court could find these types of provisions to be inapplicable or unenforceable. This exclusive forum provision does not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act. It could apply, however, to a suit that falls within one or more of the categories enumerated in the exclusive forum provision and asserts claims under the Securities Act, inasmuch as Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. There is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce such provision with respect to claims under the Securities Act, and our stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder.
The Nasdaq Global Select Market Listing
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq under the symbol “PASG.”
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A. The transfer agent’s address is 250 Royall Street, Canton, Massachusetts 02021, and its telephone number is (800) 962-4284.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
General
We may issue the debt securities offered by this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement under an indenture to be entered into between us and the trustee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of the debt securities will include those stated in the indenture and those made part of the indenture by reference to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as in effect on the date of the indenture. We have filed a copy of the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement in which this prospectus is included. The indenture will be subject to and governed by the terms of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will represent our direct, unsecured obligations and will rank equally with all of our other unsecured indebtedness.
We may issue the debt securities in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. We will describe the particular terms of each series of debt securities in a prospectus supplement relating to that series, which we will file with the SEC. The prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of debt securities being offered will specify the particular amounts, prices and terms of those debt securities. These terms may include:

the title of the series;

the aggregate principal amount, and, if a series, the total amount authorized and the total amount outstanding;

the issue price or prices, expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

any limit on the aggregate principal amount;

the date or dates on which principal is payable;

the interest rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates;

the date or dates from which interest, if any, will be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable;

the place or places where principal and, if applicable, premium and interest, is payable;

the terms and conditions upon which we may, or the holders may require us to, redeem or repurchase the debt securities;

the denominations in which such debt securities may be issuable, if other than denominations of $1,000 or any integral multiple of that number;

whether the debt securities are to be issuable in the form of certificated securities (as described below) or global securities (as described below);

the portion of principal amount that will be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date if other than the principal amount of the debt securities;

the currency of denomination;

the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal and, if applicable, premium and interest, will be made;

if payments of principal and, if applicable, premium or interest, on the debt securities are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than the currency of denomination, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

if amounts of principal and, if applicable, premium and interest may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index, then the manner in which such amounts will be determined;
 
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the provisions, if any, relating to any collateral provided for such debt securities;

any addition to or change in the covenants and/or the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture;

any events of default, if not otherwise described below under “Events of Default”;

the terms and conditions, if any, for conversion into or exchange for shares of our common stock or preferred stock;

any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents; and

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the debt securities shall be subordinated in right of payment to our other indebtedness.
We may issue discount debt securities that provide for an amount less than the stated principal amount to be due and payable upon acceleration of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of the indenture. We may also issue debt securities in bearer form, with or without coupons. If we issue discount debt securities or debt securities in bearer form, we will describe material U.S. federal income tax considerations and other material special considerations which apply to these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.
We may issue debt securities denominated in or payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units. If we do, we will describe the restrictions, elections, and general tax considerations relating to the debt securities and the foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Debt securities offered under this prospectus and any prospectus supplement will be subordinated in right of payment to certain of our outstanding senior indebtedness. In addition, we will seek the consent of the holders of any such senior indebtedness prior to issuing any debt securities under this prospectus to the extent required by the agreements evidencing such senior indebtedness.
Registrar and Paying Agent
The debt securities may be presented for registration of transfer or for exchange at the corporate trust office of the security registrar or at any other office or agency that we maintain for those purposes. In addition, the debt securities may be presented for payment of principal, interest and any premium at the office of the paying agent or at any office or agency that we maintain for those purposes.
Conversion or Exchange Rights
Debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for shares of our common stock. The terms and conditions of conversion or exchange will be stated in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms will include, among others, the following:

the conversion or exchange price;

the conversion or exchange period;

provisions regarding the convertibility or exchangeability of the debt securities, including who may convert or exchange;

events requiring adjustment to the conversion or exchange price;

provisions affecting conversion or exchange in the event of our redemption of the debt securities; and

any anti-dilution provisions, if applicable.
Registered Global Securities
If we decide to issue debt securities in the form of one or more global securities, then we will register the global securities in the name of the depositary for the global securities or the nominee of the depositary,
 
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and the global securities will be delivered by the trustee to the depositary for credit to the accounts of the holders of beneficial interests in the debt securities.
The prospectus supplement will describe the specific terms of the depositary arrangement for debt securities of a series that are issued in global form. None of us, the trustee, any payment agent or the security registrar will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in a global debt security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to these beneficial ownership interests.
No Protection in the Event of Change of Control
The indenture does not have any covenants or other provisions providing for a put or increased interest or otherwise that would afford holders of our debt securities additional protection in the event of a recapitalization transaction, a change of control or a highly leveraged transaction. If we offer any covenants or provisions of this type with respect to any debt securities covered by this prospectus, we will describe them in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Covenants
Unless otherwise indicated in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement, our debt securities will not have the benefit of any covenants that limit or restrict our business or operations, the pledging of our assets or the incurrence by us of indebtedness. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement any material covenants in respect of a series of debt securities.
Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets
The form of indenture provides that we will not consolidate with or merge into any other person or convey, transfer, sell or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any person, unless:

we are the surviving person of such merger or consolidation, or if we are not the surviving person, the person formed by the consolidation or into or with which we are merged or the person to which our properties and assets are conveyed, transferred, sold or leased, is a corporation organized and existing under the laws of the U.S., any state or the District of Columbia or a corporation or comparable legal entity organized under the laws of a foreign jurisdiction and has expressly assumed all of our obligations, including the payment of the principal of and, premium, if any, and interest on the debt securities and the performance of the other covenants under the indenture; and

immediately before and immediately after giving effect to the transaction on a pro forma basis, no event of default, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time or both, would become an event of default, has occurred and is continuing under the indenture.
Events of Default
Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the following events will be events of default under the indenture with respect to debt securities of any series:

we fail to pay any principal or premium, if any, when it becomes due;

we fail to pay any interest within 30 days after it becomes due;

we fail to observe or perform any other covenant in the debt securities or the indenture for 90 days after written notice specifying the failure from the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series; and

certain events involving bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of us or any of our significant subsidiaries.
The trustee may withhold notice to the holders of the debt securities of any series of any default, except in payment of principal of or premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities of a series, if the trustee considers it to be in the best interest of the holders of the debt securities of that series to do so.
 
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If an event of default (other than an event of default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) occurs, and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may accelerate the maturity of the debt securities. If this happens, the entire principal amount, plus the premium, if any, of all the outstanding debt securities of the affected series plus accrued interest to the date of acceleration will be immediately due and payable. At any time after the acceleration, but before a judgment or decree based on such acceleration is obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of outstanding debt securities of such series may rescind and annul such acceleration if:

all events of default (other than nonpayment of accelerated principal, premium or interest) have been cured or waived;

all lawful interest on overdue interest and overdue principal has been paid; and

the rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree.
In addition, if the acceleration occurs at any time when we have outstanding indebtedness that is senior to the debt securities, the payment of the principal amount of outstanding debt securities may be subordinated in right of payment to the prior payment of any amounts due under the senior indebtedness, in which case the holders of debt securities will be entitled to payment under the terms prescribed in the instruments evidencing the senior indebtedness and the indenture.
If an event of default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occurs, the principal, premium and interest amount with respect to all of the debt securities of any series will be due and payable immediately without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or the holders of the debt securities of that series.
The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series will have the right to waive any existing default or compliance with any provision of the indenture or the debt securities of that series and to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, subject to certain limitations specified in the indenture.
No holder of any debt security of a series will have any right to institute any proceeding with respect to the indenture or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:

the holder gives to the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default;

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the affected series make a written request and offer reasonable indemnity to the trustee to institute a proceeding as trustee;

the trustee fails to institute a proceeding within 60 days after such request; and

the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the affected series do not give the trustee a direction inconsistent with such request during such 60-day period.
These limitations do not, however, apply to a suit instituted for payment on debt securities of any series on or after the due dates expressed in the debt securities.
We will periodically deliver certificates to the trustee regarding our compliance with our obligations under the indenture.
Modification and Waiver
From time to time, we and the trustee may, without the consent of holders of the debt securities of one or more series, amend the indenture or the debt securities of one or more series, or supplement the indenture, for certain specified purposes, including:

to provide that the surviving entity following a change of control permitted under the indenture will assume all of our obligations under the indenture and debt securities;

to provide for certificated debt securities in addition to uncertificated debt securities;
 
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to comply with any requirements of the SEC under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939;

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture;

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, or make any other change that does not materially and adversely affect the rights of any holder; and

to appoint a successor trustee under the indenture with respect to one or more series.
From time to time we and the trustee may, with the consent of holders of at least a majority in principal amount of an outstanding series of debt securities, amend or supplement the indenture or the debt securities series, or waive compliance in a particular instance by us with any provision of the indenture or the debt securities. We may not, however, without the consent of each holder affected by such action, modify or supplement the indenture or the debt securities or waive compliance with any provision of the indenture or the debt securities in order to:

reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement, or waiver to the indenture or such debt security;

reduce the rate of or change the time for payment of interest or reduce the amount of or postpone the date for payment of sinking fund or analogous obligations;

reduce the principal of or change the stated maturity of the debt securities;

make any debt security payable in money other than that stated in the debt security;

change the amount or time of any payment required or reduce the premium payable upon any redemption, or change the time before which no such redemption may be made;

waive a default in the payment of the principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities or a redemption payment;

waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt securities or change any provision with respect to redemption of debt securities; or

take any other action otherwise prohibited by the indenture to be taken without the consent of each holder affected by the action.
Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances
The indenture permits us, at any time, to elect to discharge our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities by following certain procedures described in the indenture. These procedures will allow us either:

to defease and be discharged from any and all of our obligations with respect to any debt securities except for the following obligations (which discharge is referred to as “legal defeasance”):
1.
to register the transfer or exchange of such debt securities;
2.
to replace temporary or mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen debt securities;
3.
to compensate and indemnify the trustee; or
4.
to maintain an office or agency in respect of the debt securities and to hold monies for payment in trust; or

to be released from our obligations with respect to the debt securities under certain covenants contained in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants which may be contained in the applicable supplemental indenture (which release is referred to as “covenant defeasance”).
 
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In order to exercise either defeasance option, we must irrevocably deposit with the trustee or other qualifying trustee, in trust for that purpose:

money;

U.S. Government Obligations (as described below) or Foreign Government Obligations (as described below) that through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in accordance with their terms will provide money; or

a combination of money and/or U.S. Government Obligations and/or Foreign Government Obligations sufficient in the written opinion of a nationally-recognized firm of independent accountants to provide money;
that, in each case specified above, provides a sufficient amount to pay the principal of, premium, if any, and interest, if any, on the debt securities of the series, on the scheduled due dates or on a selected date of redemption in accordance with the terms of the indenture.
In addition, defeasance may be effected only if, among other things:

in the case of either legal or covenant defeasance, we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel, as specified in the indenture, stating that as a result of the defeasance neither the trust nor the trustee will be required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940;

in the case of legal defeasance, we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling to the effect that, or there has been a change in any applicable federal income tax law with the effect that (and the opinion shall confirm that), the holders of outstanding debt securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes solely as a result of such legal defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner, including as a result of prepayment, and at the same times as would have been the case if legal defeasance had not occurred;

in the case of covenant defeasance, we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the outstanding debt securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of covenant defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if covenant defeasance had not occurred; and

certain other conditions described in the indenture are satisfied.
If we fail to comply with our remaining obligations under the indenture and applicable supplemental indenture after a covenant defeasance of the indenture and applicable supplemental indenture, and the debt securities are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any undefeased event of default, the amount of money and/or U.S. Government Obligations and/or Foreign Government Obligations on deposit with the trustee could be insufficient to pay amounts due under the debt securities of the affected series at the time of acceleration. We will, however, remain liable in respect of these payments.
The term “U.S. Government Obligations” as used in the above discussion means securities that are direct obligations of or non-callable obligations guaranteed by the United States of America for the payment of which obligation or guarantee the full faith and credit of the United States of America is pledged.
The term “Foreign Government Obligations” as used in the above discussion means, with respect to debt securities of any series that are denominated in a currency other than U.S. dollars, (1) direct obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged or (2) obligations of a person controlled or supervised by or acting as an agent or instrumentality of such government the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by that government, which in either case under clauses (1) or (2), are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer.
 
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Regarding the Trustee
We will identify the trustee with respect to any series of debt securities in the prospectus supplement relating to the applicable debt securities. You should note that if the trustee becomes a creditor of ours, the indenture and the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 limit the rights of the trustee to obtain payment of claims in certain cases, or to realize on certain property received in respect of any such claim, as security or otherwise. The trustee and its affiliates may engage in, and will be permitted to continue to engage in, other transactions with us and our affiliates. If, however, the trustee acquires any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, it must eliminate such conflict or resign.
The holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of any series may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for exercising any remedy available to the trustee. If an event of default occurs and is continuing, the trustee, in the exercise of its rights and powers, must use the degree of care and skill of a prudent person in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to that provision, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture at the request of any of the holders of the debt securities, unless they have offered to the trustee reasonable indemnity or security.
No Individual Liability of Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers or Directors
Each indenture provides that no incorporator and no past, present or future stockholder, officer or director of our company or any successor corporation in those capacities will have any individual liability for any of our obligations, covenants or agreements under the debt securities or such indenture.
Governing Law
The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
General
We may issue warrants for the purchase of our debt securities, preferred stock, common stock, or any combination thereof. Warrants may be issued independently or together with our debt securities, preferred stock or common stock and may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as warrant agent. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants. The warrant agent will not have any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of warrants. This summary of certain provisions of the warrants is not complete. For the terms of a particular series of warrants, you should refer to the prospectus supplement for that series of warrants and the warrant agreement for that particular series.
Debt Warrants
The prospectus supplement relating to a particular issue of warrants to purchase debt securities will describe the terms of the debt warrants, including the following:

the title of the debt warrants;

the offering price for the debt warrants, if any;

the aggregate number of the debt warrants;

the designation and terms of the debt securities, including any conversion rights, purchasable upon exercise of the debt warrants;

if applicable, the date from and after which the debt warrants and any debt securities issued with them will be separately transferable;

the principal amount of debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of a debt warrant and the exercise price for the warrants, which may be payable in cash, securities or other property;

the dates on which the right to exercise the debt warrants will commence and expire;

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the debt warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

whether the debt warrants represented by the debt warrant certificates or debt securities that may be issued upon exercise of the debt warrants will be issued in registered or bearer form;

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

if applicable, a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations;

the antidilution provisions of the debt warrants, if any;

the redemption or call provisions, if any, applicable to the debt warrants;

any provisions with respect to the holder’s right to require us to repurchase the debt warrants upon a change in control or similar event; and

any additional terms of the debt warrants, including procedures and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise, and settlement of the debt warrants.
Debt warrant certificates will be exchangeable for new debt warrant certificates of different denominations. Debt warrants may be exercised at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement. Prior to the exercise of their debt warrants, holders of debt warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the debt securities purchasable upon exercise and will not be entitled to payment of principal or any premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities purchasable upon exercise.
 
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Equity Warrants
The prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of warrants to purchase our common stock or preferred stock will describe the terms of the warrants, including the following:

the title of the warrants;

the offering price for the warrants, if any;

the aggregate number of warrants;

the designation and terms of the common stock or preferred stock that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each security;

if applicable, the date from and after which the warrants and any securities issued with the warrants will be separately transferable;

the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock that may be purchased upon exercise of a warrant and the exercise price for the warrants;

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants shall commence and expire;

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

if applicable, a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations;

the antidilution provisions of the warrants, if any;

the redemption or call provisions, if any, applicable to the warrants;

any provisions with respect to a holder’s right to require us to repurchase the warrants upon a change in control or similar event; and

any additional terms of the warrants, including procedures and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise and settlement of the warrants.
Holders of equity warrants will not be entitled:

to vote, consent, or receive dividends;

receive notice as stockholders with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter; or

exercise any rights as stockholders.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS
We may issue subscription rights to purchase our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. These subscription rights may be offered independently or together with any other security offered hereby and may or may not be transferable by the stockholder receiving the subscription rights in such offering. In connection with any offering of subscription rights, we may enter into a standby arrangement with one or more underwriters or other purchasers pursuant to which the underwriters or other purchasers may be required to purchase any securities remaining unsubscribed for after such offering.
The prospectus supplement relating to any subscription rights we offer, if any, will, to the extent applicable, include specific terms relating to the offering, including some or all of the following:

the price, if any, for the subscription rights;

the exercise price payable for our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities upon the exercise of the subscription rights;

the number of subscription rights to be issued to each stockholder;

the number and terms of our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities which may be purchased per each subscription right;

the extent to which the subscription rights are transferable;

any other terms of the subscription rights, including the terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the subscription rights;

the date on which the right to exercise the subscription rights shall commence, and the date on which the subscription rights shall expire;

the extent to which the subscription rights may include an over-subscription privilege with respect to unsubscribed securities or an over-allotment privilege to the extent the securities are fully subscribed; and

if applicable, the material terms of any standby underwriting or purchase arrangement which may be entered into by us in connection with the offering of subscription rights.
The description in the applicable prospectus supplement of any subscription rights we offer will not necessarily be complete and will be qualified in its entirety by reference to the applicable subscription rights certificate, which will be filed with the SEC if we offer subscription rights. We urge you to read the applicable subscription rights certificate and any applicable prospectus supplement in their entirety.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS
We may issue units consisting of some or all of the securities described above, in any combination, including common stock, preferred stock, warrants and/or debt securities. The terms of these units will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The description of the terms of these units in the related prospectus supplement will not be complete. You should refer to the applicable form of unit and unit agreement for complete information with respect to these units.
 
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LEGAL MATTERS
Fenwick & West LLP, San Francisco, California, will issue an opinion about certain legal matters with respect to the securities. Any underwriters or agents will be advised about legal matters relating to any offering by their own counsel.
 
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EXPERTS
The financial statements of Passage Bio, Inc. as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and for the years then ended, have been incorporated by reference herein and in the registration statement in reliance upon the report of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
 
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[MISSING IMAGE: lg_passage-4c.jpg]
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Warrants
Subscription Rights
Units
PROSPECTUS
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PROSPECTUS
$125,000,000
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_passage-4c.jpg]
Common Stock
We have entered into a sales agreement, or the sales agreement, with Cowen and Company, LLC, or Cowen, relating to shares of our common stock, par value $0.0001, offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $125.0 million from time to time through Cowen acting as our agent.
Our common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “PASG.” The last reported sales price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Market on March 4, 2021 was $19.43 per share.
Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus may be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Cowen is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of securities, but will act as a sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between Cowen and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
Under the sales agreement, we may also sell shares of common stock to Cowen as principal for its own account, at a price to be agreed upon at the time of sale. If we sell shares to a Cowen as principal, we will enter into a separate terms agreement with Cowen, and we will describe the agreement in a separate prospectus supplement or pricing supplement.
The compensation to Cowen for sales of common stock sold pursuant to the sales agreement will be up to 3.0% of the aggregate gross proceeds of any shares of common stock sold under the sales agreement. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, Cowen will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties referenced under the heading “Risk Factors” on page 4 of this prospectus as well as those contained in any accompanying prospectus and any related free writing prospectus or prospectus supplement we prepare or authorize in connection with this offering, and in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus or the accompanying prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Cowen
The date of this prospectus is March 5, 2021.

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell shares of our common stock. Under this prospectus, we may from time to time sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $125,000,000, at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering.
This prospectus describes the terms of this offering of common stock and also adds to and updates information contained in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference into this prospectus that was filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date — for example, a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus — the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.
We have not, and Cowen has not, authorized anyone to provide you with any information other than that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement or related free writing prospectus to which we have referred you. Neither we nor Cowen take any responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information others may give you. We are not, and Cowen is not, making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted or in which the person making that offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make an offer or solicitation. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the accompanying base prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus, the accompanying base prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision.
When we refer to “Passage,” “Passage Bio,” “we,” “our,” “us,” the “Registrant,” the “Company” and “our company” in this prospectus, we mean Passage Bio, Inc., a Delaware corporation, unless otherwise specified.
“PASSAGE BIO” is a registered trademark, and the PASSAGE BIO mark, the Passage Bio logo and all product candidate names are our common law trademarks. All other service marks, trademarks and tradenames appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and tradenames referred to in this prospectus appear without the ® and ™ symbols, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights, or the right of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and tradenames.
 
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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
Available Information
We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a web site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov.
Our web site address is www.passagebio.com. The information on our web site, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus.
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and does not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided below. Documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement through the SEC’s website, as provided above, or at our principal executive offices, Two Commerce Square, 2001 Market Street, 28th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19103, during normal business hours.
Incorporation by Reference
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those other documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. A Current Report (or portion thereof) furnished, but not filed, on Form 8-K shall not be incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings we make with the SEC under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the termination of any offering of securities made by this prospectus:

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on March 3, 2021;

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on February 17, 2021 and February 19, 2021; and

the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on February 18, 2020 under Section 12 of the Exchange Act, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description.
All reports and other documents we subsequently file pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the termination of this offering, including all such documents we may file with the SEC after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, but excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC, will also be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and deemed to be part of this prospectus from the date of the filing of such reports and documents.
We will furnish without charge to you, on written or oral request, a copy of any or all of such documents that has been incorporated herein by reference (other than exhibits to such documents unless such exhibits are specifically incorporated by reference into the documents that this prospectus incorporates). Written or oral requests for copies should be directed to Passage Bio, Inc., Attn: Investor Relations, Two Commerce Square, 2001 Market Street, 28th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19103, and our telephone number is (267) 866-0311.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights information contained in other parts of this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus from our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, and our other filings with the SEC listed below under the heading “Incorporation of Information by Reference.” This summary may not contain all the information that you should consider before investing in securities. You should read the entire prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus carefully, including “Risk Factors” and the financial data and related notes and other information incorporated by reference, before making an investment decision. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
Our Company
We are a genetic medicines company focused on developing transformative therapies for rare, monogenic central nervous system, or CNS, disorders with limited or no approved treatment options. Our vision is to finally fulfill the promise of gene therapy by developing groundbreaking therapies that transform the lives of patients with rare monogenic CNS diseases. The field of genetic medicine is rapidly expanding and we believe we have a differentiated approach to developing treatments for rare, monogenic CNS disorders that enables us to select and advance product candidates with a higher probability of technical and regulatory success. We have entered into a strategic research collaboration with the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania’s, or Penn’s Gene Therapy Program, or GTP, headed by Dr. James Wilson, a leader in the genetic medicines field. We also leverage our close working relationship with Penn’s Orphan Disease Center to develop historical and prospective comparable natural history patient profiles for comparison to participants in interventional trials. Through this collaboration we have assembled a deep portfolio of genetic medicine product candidates, including our three lead product candidates, all of which we retain global rights to: PBGM01 for the treatment of GM1 gangliosidosis, or GM1, PBFT02 for the treatment of frontotemporal dementia, or FTD, and PBKR03 for the treatment of Krabbe disease. We currently have active INDs for our three lead programs in the United States, and clinical trial authorizations for our Imagine 1 Trial for PBGM01 from the United Kingdom’s Medicines Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency, or MHRA, and Health Canada. We expect to initiate patient enrollment for Phase 1/2 trials for GM1 in the first quarter of 2021, for FTD in the first half of 2021 and for Krabbe disease in the first half of 2021. We will also continue to explore entering into new collaborations to build our pipeline.
Our research collaboration with GTP provides us with access to one of the premier research institutions in the world for the discovery and preclinical development of genetic medicine product candidates and exclusive rights to certain rare, monogenic CNS disorders. As part of this collaboration, we have exclusive rights to all discovery work and IND-enabling research for up to 17 rare, monogenic CNS indications that we select. In addition to our three lead product candidates, we have four ongoing research programs and an option to license ten additional programs from GTP. Further, we have exclusive rights, subject to certain limitations, to technologies resulting from the discovery program for Passage Bio products developed with GTP, such as novel capsids, toxicity reduction technologies and delivery and formulation. We have global commercial rights to all of our product candidates and believe that our approach to developing therapies for rare, life-threatening diseases that are currently underserved presents an opportunity to efficiently advance our product candidates through clinical development, regulatory approval and ultimately to commercialization.
 
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We founded Passage Bio with the intent to build a differentiated CNS genetic medicines company delivering transformative therapies to patients by combining our team’s experience in rare and neurological disease development, manufacturing and commercialization with the pioneering research expertise of GTP in gene therapy. We are purposefully focusing on rare, monogenic CNS disorders for which we believe our genetic medicine approach provides distinct technical advantages based on decades of research by GTP. GTP conducts rigorous preclinical studies to identify promising product candidates. Our collaboration provides us with access to cutting edge capabilities and innovation in the field of genetic medicine research, including in capsid engineering and next-generation capsid libraries, vector engineering, transgene design and gene therapy modalities, animal disease models and related studies for lead-optimization of product candidates. Further, we believe our team’s deep clinical development experience in rare and neurological diseases will enable well planned clinical trials with the potential for efficient advancement to regulatory approval. In addition, we are engaging with key opinion leaders, practitioners and patient advocacy groups in the field of rare, monogenic CNS disorders that provide strategic input and help inform our clinical development activities. We believe that our ability to execute on the above tenets provides us with product candidates that have an improved profile for clinical development and an enhanced probability of success.
Company Information
We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in July 2017 under the name Passage Bio, Inc. Our principal executive office is located at Two Commerce Square, 2001 Market Street, 28th Floor, Philadelphia, PA, 19103, and our telephone number is (267) 866-0311. Our website address is www.passagebio.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of, and is not incorporated by reference into, this prospectus. Investors should not rely on any such information in deciding whether to purchase our common stock.
 
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THE OFFERING
Common stock offered by us
Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $125,000,000.
Common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering
Up to 60,098,157 shares (as more fully described in the notes following this table), assuming sales of 6,433,350 shares of our common stock in this offering at an offering price of  $19.43 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common shares on The Nasdaq Global Market on March 4, 2021. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.
Plan of Distribution
“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through our sales agent, Cowen. See “Plan of Distribution.”
Use of Proceeds
We currently intend to use the net proceeds of this offering primarily for general corporate purposes, which may include funding research, clinical development, process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, working capital and capital expenditures. See “Use of Proceeds.”
Risk Factors
Investing in our common stock involves significant risks. See the disclosure under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus and under similar headings in other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
Nasdaq Global Market
symbol
PASG
The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 53,664,807 shares of our common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2020, after giving effect to our offering of 8,050,000 shares of common stock in our underwritten offering of shares of common stock in January 2021 and excludes:

6,928,111 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding as of December 31, 2020 under our 2018 Amended and Restated Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2018 Plan, and our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2020 Plan, with a weighted-average exercise price of  $12.36 per share;

1,516,517 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of options granted after December 31, 2020, under our 2020 Plan, with an exercise price of  $22.03 per share; and

3,734,620 additional shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our stock-based compensation plans as of December 31, 2020, consisting of  (i) 3,320,729 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Plan after the issuance of the awards described above and (ii) 413,891 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.
Except as otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus does not assume or give effect to any exercise of outstanding options after December 31, 2020.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and the accompanying base prospectus involves risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors described below and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any amendment or update thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, including in our Annual Reports on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.
Risks Relating to this Offering
If you purchase shares of our common stock sold in this offering, you may experience immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value of your shares. In addition, we may issue additional equity or convertible debt securities in the future, which may result in additional dilution to you.
The price per share of our common stock being offered may be higher than the net tangible book value per share of our outstanding common stock prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 6,433,350 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of  $19.43 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on March 4, 2021, for aggregate gross proceeds of approximately $125,000,000, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, new investors in this offering will incur immediate dilution of  $9.59 per share. For a more detailed discussion of the foregoing, see the section entitled “Dilution” below. To the extent outstanding stock options or warrants are exercised, there will be further dilution to new investors. In addition, to the extent we need to raise additional capital in the future and we issue additional shares of common stock or securities convertible or exchangeable for our common stock, our then existing stockholders may experience dilution and the new securities may have rights senior to those of our common stock offered in this offering.
We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively.
Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering, including for any of the purposes described in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds,” and you will not have the opportunity as part of your investment decision to assess whether the net proceeds are being used appropriately. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of the net proceeds from this offering, their ultimate use may vary substantially from their currently intended use. Our management might not apply our net proceeds in ways that ultimately increase the value of your investment. We expect to use the net proceeds from this offering to fund research, clinical development, process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could harm our business. Pending their use, we plan to invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term or long-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders. If we do not invest or apply the net proceeds from this offering in ways that enhance stockholder value, we may fail to achieve expected financial results, which could cause our stock price to decline.
The actual number of shares we will issue under the sales agreement, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.
Subject to certain limitations in the sales agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a placement notice to Cowen at any time throughout the term of the sales agreement. The number of shares that are sold by Cowen after delivering a placement notice will fluctuate based on the market price of the common shares during the sales period and limits we set with Cowen. Because the price per share of each share sold will fluctuate based on the market price of our common stock during the sales period, it is not possible at this stage to predict the number of shares that will be ultimately issued.
 
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The common stock offered hereby will be sold in “at the market offerings”, and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.
Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices, and numbers of shares sold, and there is no minimum or maximum sales price. Investors may experience a decline in the value of their shares as a result of share sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.
 
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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus and documents incorporated herein by reference contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained or incorporated herein by reference are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “could,” “intend,” “target,” “project,” “contemplate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential” or “continue” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. All statements other than statements of historical fact contained or incorporated herein by reference, including without limitation statements regarding our plans to develop and commercialize our product candidates, the timing of our ongoing or planned clinical trials, the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals, the clinical utility of our product candidates, our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy, our expectations about the willingness of healthcare professionals to use our product candidates, the sufficiency of our cash and cash equivalents, the expected impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operations, and the plans and objectives of management for future operations and capital expenditures are forward-looking statements. We intend that such forward-looking statements be subject to the safe harbors created thereby
These forward-looking statements are based on the current beliefs and expectations of our management and are subject to significant risks and uncertainties. If underlying assumptions prove inaccurate or unknown risks or uncertainties materialize, actual results may differ materially from current expectations and projections. Factors that might cause such a difference include those discussed in Part II, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, as well as those discussed in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any free writing prospectus. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this prospectus or, in the case of documents referred to or incorporated by reference, the date of those documents.
All subsequent written or oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. We do not undertake any obligation to release publicly any revisions to these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as may be required under applicable U.S. securities law. If we do update one or more forward-looking statements, no inference should be drawn that we will make additional updates with respect to those or other forward-looking statements.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $125,000,000 from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. There can be no assurance that we will sell any shares under or fully utilize the sales agreement with Cowen as a source of financing.
We currently intend to use any net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus primarily to fund research, clinical development, process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes. Additionally, we may use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to expand our current business by in-licensing or acquiring, as the case may be, commercial products, product candidates, technologies, compounds, other assets or complementary businesses, using cash or shares of our common stock. However, we have no current commitments or obligations to do so.
The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures will depend on numerous factors, including the progress of our clinical trials and other development efforts and other factors described under “Risk Factors” in this prospectus, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, as well as the amount of cash used in our operations. We may find it necessary or advisable to use the net proceeds for other purposes, and we will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds. Pending the uses described above, we plan to invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term or long-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities.
 
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DIVIDEND POLICY
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock. We intend to retain future earnings, if any, to finance the operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination related to our dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our board of directors after considering our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors the board of directors deems relevant, and subject to the restrictions contained in any future financing instruments.
 
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DILUTION
If you invest in our common stock, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the price per share you pay in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.
Our net tangible book value of our common stock as of December 31, 2020 was $304.7 million, or $6.68 per share of common stock based upon 45,614,807 shares outstanding. Net tangible book value per share is equal to our total tangible assets, less our total liabilities, divided by the total number of shares outstanding as of December 31, 2020. Our pro forma net tangible book value as of December 31, 2020 was $470.6 million, or $8.77 per share of common stock. Our pro forma net tangible book value per share represents the amount of our total tangible assets (which excludes deferred offering costs) reduced by the amount of our total liabilities and divided by the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2020, after giving effect to the net proceeds of  $165.9 million from our offering of 8,050,000 shares of common stock in January 2021.
After giving effect to the sale of our common stock in the aggregate amount of  $125 million at an assumed offering price of  $19.43 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on March 4, 2021, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted pro forma net tangible book value as of December 31, 2020 would have been $591.5 million, or $9.84 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of  $1.07 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of  $9.59 per share to new investors in this offering.
The following table illustrates this calculation on a per share basis. The as-adjusted information is illustrative only and will adjust based on the actual price to the public, the actual number of shares sold and other terms of the offering determined at the time shares of our common stock are sold pursuant to this prospectus. The as-adjusted information assumes that all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of  $125 million is sold at the assumed offering price of  $19.43 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on March 4, 2021. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices.
Assumed public offering price per share
$ 19.43
Historical net tangible book value per share as of December 31, 2020
$ 6.68
Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to our January offering
2.09
Pro forma net tangible book value as of December 31, 2020
8.77
Increase in pro forma net tangible book value per share attributable to the
offering
1.07
As adjusted pro forma net tangible book value per share after giving effect to the offering
9.84
Dilution per share to new investors participating in the offering
$ 9.59
The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 53,664,807 shares of our common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2020, after giving effect to our offering of 8,050,000 shares of common stock in our underwritten offering of shares of common stock in January 2021 and excludes:

6,928,111 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding as of December 31, 2020 under our 2018 Amended and Restated Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2018 Plan, and our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2020 Plan, with a weighted-average exercise price of  $12.36 per share;

1,516,517 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of options granted after December 31, 2020, under our 2020 Plan, with an exercise price of  $22.03 per share; and

3,734,620 additional shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our stock-based compensation plans as of December 31, 2020, consisting of  (i) 3,320,729 shares of common
 
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stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Plan after the issuance of the awards described above and (ii) 413,891 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.
Except as otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus does not assume or give effect to exercise of outstanding options after December 31, 2020.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
General
The following description summarizes the most important terms of our capital stock. Because it is only a summary, it does not contain all the information that may be important to you. For a complete description, you should refer to our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws, which are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, and to the applicable provisions of Delaware law.
Our authorized capital stock consists of 300,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, and 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share.
As of December 31, 2020, there were 45,917,084 shares of our common stock outstanding, and no shares of preferred stock outstanding.
Common Stock
Dividend rights
Subject to preferences that may apply to any shares of preferred stock outstanding at the time, the holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends out of funds legally available if our board of directors, in its discretion, determines to issue dividends and then only at the times and in the amounts that our board of directors may determine. For more information about our dividend policy, see the section entitled “Dividend Policy” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
Voting rights
Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. We have not provided for cumulative voting for the election of directors in our restated certificate of incorporation, which means that holders of a majority of the shares of our common stock are able to elect all of our directors. Our restated certificate of incorporation establishes a classified board of directors, divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms. Only one class of directors will be elected at each annual meeting of our stockholders, with the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms.
No preemptive or similar rights
Our common stock is not entitled to preemptive rights, and is not subject to conversion, redemption or sinking fund provisions.
Right to receive liquidation distributions
Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, the assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders would be distributable ratably among the holders of our common stock and any participating preferred stock outstanding at that time, subject to prior satisfaction of all outstanding debt and liabilities and the preferential rights of and the payment of liquidation preferences, if any, on any outstanding shares of preferred stock.
Preferred Stock
We had no shares of preferred stock outstanding as of December 31, 2020.
Our board of directors is authorized, subject to limitations prescribed by Delaware law, to issue preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each series and to fix the designation, powers, preferences and rights of the shares of each series and any of their qualifications, limitations or restrictions, in each case without further vote or action by our stockholders. Our board of directors is also able to increase or decrease the number of shares of any series of preferred stock, but not below the number of shares of that series then outstanding, without any further vote or action by our stockholders. Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of
 
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preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of our common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company price of our common stock and the voting and other rights of the holders of our common stock. We have no current plan to issue any shares of preferred stock.
Stock options
As of December 31, 2020, we had outstanding options to purchase an aggregate 6,928,111 shares of our common stock, with a weighted-average exercise price of  $12.36.
Warrants
We had no outstanding warrants to purchase our securities as of December 31, 2020.
Registration Rights
Pursuant to the terms of our amended and restated investors’ rights agreement, as of December 31, 2020, the holders of 18,848,517 shares of our common stock were entitled to rights with respect to the registration of these shares under the Securities Act as described below. We refer to these shares collectively as registrable securities.
Form S-1 registration rights
The holders of at least 30% of the then-outstanding registrable securities may make a request to us for the registration under the Securities Act of at least 30% of the registrable securities (or a lesser percent if the anticipated aggregate offering price, net of selling expenses, would exceed $10 million). Within ten (10) days following such request, we are obligated to provide notice of such request to all holders of registrable securities, other than the initiating holders, to file a registration statement under the Securities Act covering all registrable securities that the initiating holders requested to be registered and any additional registrable securities requested to be included in such registration by any other holders.
We are only required to file two registration statements that are declared effective upon exercise of these demand registration rights. We may postpone taking action with respect to such filing not more than once during any 12-month period for a total period of not more than 60 days, if after receiving a request for registration, we furnish to the holders requesting such registration a certificate signed by our Chief Executive Officer stating that, in the good faith judgment of our board of directors, it would be materially detrimental to us and our stockholders for such registration statement to either become effective or remain effective for as long as such registration statement otherwise would be required to remain effective.
The underwriters of any underwritten offering will have the right to limit the number of shares registered by these holders if they determine that marketing factors require limitation, in which case the number of shares to be registered will be apportioned, in proportion (as nearly as practicable), to the number of registrable securities owned by each holder or in such other proportion as shall mutually be agreed to by all such selling Holders. However, the number of shares to be registered by these holders cannot be reduced unless all other securities are first entirely excluded from the underwriting.
Form S-3 registration rights
Any holder or group of holders of at least 25% of then-outstanding registrable securities can request that we register all or part of their shares on Form S-3 if we are eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3 and if the aggregate price to the public of the shares offered is at least $3 million. Within ten (10) days following such request, we are obligated to provide notice of such request to all holders of registrable securities, other than the initiating holders, to file a registration statement under the Securities Act covering all registrable securities that the initiating holders requested to be registered and any additional registrable securities requested to be included in such registration by any other holders.
 
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The stockholders may only require us to effect two registration statements on Form S-3 in a 12-month period. We may postpone taking action with respect to such filing not more than once during any 12-month period for a total period of not more than 60 days, if after receiving a request for registration, we furnish to the holders requesting such registration a certificate signed by our Chief Executive Officer stating that, in the good faith judgment of our board of directors, it would be materially detrimental to us and our stockholders for such registration statement to either become effective or remain effective for as long as such registration statement otherwise would be required to remain effective.
The underwriters of any underwritten offering will have the right to limit the number of shares registered by these holders if they determine that marketing factors require limitation, in which case the number of shares to be registered will be apportioned, in proportion (as nearly as practicable), to the number of registrable securities owned by each holder or in such other proportion as shall mutually be agreed to by all such selling Holders. However, the number of shares to be registered by these holders cannot be reduced unless all other securities are first entirely excluded from the underwriting.
Piggyback registration rights
If we register any of our securities for public sale, holders of then-outstanding registrable securities or their permitted transferees will have the right to include their registrable securities in the registration statement. However, this right does not apply to a registration relating to employee benefit plans, a registration relating to a corporate reorganization, a registration on a form that does not include substantially the same information as would be required to be included in a registration statement covering the sale of registrable securities or a registration in which the only common stock being registered is common stock issuable upon conversion of debt securities that are being registered.
The underwriters of any underwritten offering will have the right to limit the number of shares registered by these holders if they determine that marketing factors require limitation, in which case the number of shares to be registered will be apportioned to the selling holders, in proportion (as nearly as practicable), to the number of registrable securities owned by each selling holder or in such other proportion as shall mutually be agreed to by all such selling Holders. However, the number of shares to be registered by these holders cannot be reduced (i) unless all other securities (other than securities to be sold by us) are first entirely excluded from the offering, (ii) below 30% of the total number of securities included in such offering, unless such offering is the initial public offering, in which case the selling holders may be excluded further if the underwriters make the determination for a limitation and no other stockholder’s securities are included in such offering.
Expenses of registration rights
We generally will pay all expenses, other than underwriting discounts and commissions.
Expiration of registration rights
The registration rights described above will expire, with respect to any particular holder of these rights, on the earlier of the third anniversary of our IPO or with respect to each holder, such time following this offering as all registrable securities of such holder may be sold without limitation within a three-month period pursuant to Rule 144.
Anti-takeover provisions
The provisions of the DGCL, our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws could have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another person from acquiring control of our company. These provisions, which are summarized below, may have the effect of discouraging takeover bids. They are also designed, in part, to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to negotiate first with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with an unfriendly or unsolicited acquirer outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging a proposal to acquire us because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.
 
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Delaware law
We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the DGCL regulating corporate takeovers. In general, Section 203 prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a period of three years following the date on which the person became an interested stockholder unless:

prior to the date of the transaction, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder, (i) shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers and (ii) shares owned by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

at or subsequent to the date of the transaction, the business combination is approved by the board of directors of the corporation and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66.67% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.
Generally, a business combination includes a merger, asset or stock sale, or other transaction or series of transactions together resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. An interested stockholder is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns or, within three years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status, did own 15% or more of a corporation’s outstanding voting stock. We expect the existence of this provision to have an anti-takeover effect with respect to transactions our board of directors does not approve in advance. We also anticipate that Section 203 may also discourage attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares of common stock held by stockholders.
Restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws provisions
Our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws include a number of provisions that could deter hostile takeovers or delay or prevent changes in control of our company, including the following:

Board of directors vacancies.   Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws authorize only our board of directors to fill vacant directorships, including newly created seats. In addition, the number of directors constituting our board of directors is permitted to be set only by a resolution adopted by a majority vote of our entire board of directors. These provisions would prevent a stockholder from increasing the size of our board of directors and then gaining control of our board of directors by filling the resulting vacancies with its own nominees. This makes it more difficult to change the composition of our board of directors but promotes continuity of management.

Classified board.   Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws provide that our board of directors is classified into three classes of directors, each with staggered three-year terms. A third party may be discouraged from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us as it is more difficult and time consuming for stockholders to replace a majority of the directors on a classified board of directors.

Stockholder action; special meetings of stockholders.   Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that our stockholders may not take action by written consent, but may only take action at annual or special meetings of our stockholders. As a result, a holder controlling a majority of our capital stock would not be able to amend our restated bylaws or remove directors without holding a meeting of our stockholders called in accordance with our restated bylaws. Further, our restated bylaws provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by a majority of our board of directors, the chairman of our board of directors, our Chief Executive Officer or our President, thus prohibiting a stockholder from calling a special meeting. These provisions might delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or for stockholders controlling a majority of our capital stock to take any action, including the removal of directors.
 
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Advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and director nominations.   Our restated bylaws provide advance notice procedures for stockholders seeking to bring business before our annual meeting of stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at our annual meeting of stockholders. Our restated bylaws also specify certain requirements regarding the form and content of a stockholder’s notice. These provisions might preclude our stockholders from bringing matters before our annual meeting of stockholders or from making nominations for directors at our annual meeting of stockholders if the proper procedures are not followed. We expect that these provisions might also discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our company.

No cumulative voting.   The DGCL provides that stockholders are not entitled to the right to cumulate votes in the election of directors unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws do not provide for cumulative voting.

Directors removed only for cause.   Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that stockholders may remove directors only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding common stock.

Amendment of charter provisions.   Any amendment of the above expected provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation would require approval by holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding common stock.

Issuance of undesignated preferred stock.   Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by the stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock with rights and preferences, including voting rights, designated from time to time by our board of directors. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock would enable our board of directors to render more difficult or to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by merger, tender offer, proxy contest or other means.

Choice of forum.   Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the DGCL, our restated certificate of incorporation or our restated bylaws; or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. The enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ certificates of incorporation has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that a court could find these types of provisions to be inapplicable or unenforceable. This exclusive forum provision does not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act. It could apply, however, to a suit that falls within one or more of the categories enumerated in the exclusive forum provision and asserts claims under the Securities Act, inasmuch as Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. There is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce such provision with respect to claims under the Securities Act, and our stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder.
The Nasdaq Global Select Market Listing
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq under the symbol “PASG.”
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A. The transfer agent’s address is 250 Royall Street, Canton, Massachusetts 02021, and its telephone number is (800) 962-4284.
 
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We have entered into a sales agreement with Cowen, under which we may issue and sell from time to time up to $125,000,000 of our common stock through or to Cowen as our sales agent or principal. Sales of our common stock, if any, will be made at market prices by any method that is deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. A copy of the sales agreement that we entered into with Cowen and Company, LLC is filed with the SEC as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
Cowen will offer our common stock subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement on a daily basis or as otherwise agreed upon by us and Cowen. We will designate the maximum amount of common stock to be sold through Cowen on a daily basis or otherwise determine such maximum amount together with Cowen. Subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement, Cowen will use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us. We may instruct Cowen not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any such instruction. Cowen or we may suspend the offering of our common stock being made through Cowen under the sales agreement upon proper notice to the other party. Cowen and we each have the right, by giving written notice as specified in the sales agreement, to terminate the sales agreement in each party’s sole discretion at any time.
The aggregate compensation payable to Cowen as sales agent up to 3.0% of the gross sales price of the shares sold through it pursuant to the sales agreement. We have also agreed to reimburse Cowen up to $50,000 of Cowen’s actual outside legal expenses incurred by Cowen in connection with this offering, and for certain other expenses, including Cowen’s FINRA counsel fees in an amount up to $10,000. We estimate that the total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding commissions payable to Cowen under the sales agreement, will be approximately $350,000.
The remaining sales proceeds, after deducting any expenses payable by us and any transaction fees imposed by any governmental, regulatory, or self-regulatory organization in connection with the sales, will equal our net proceeds for the sale of such common stock.
Cowen will provide written confirmation to us following the close of trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on each day in which common stock is sold through it as sales agent under the sales agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares of common stock sold through it as sales agent on that day, the volume weighted average price of the shares sold, the percentage of the daily trading volume and the net proceeds to us.
We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of common stock sold through Cowen under the sales agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to Cowen in connection with the sales of common stock.
Settlement for sales of common stock will occur, unless the parties agree otherwise, on the second business day that is also a trading day following the date on which any sales were made in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
Under the sales agreement, we may also sell shares of common stock to Cowen as principal for its own account, at a price to be agreed upon at the time of sale. If we sell shares to a Cowen as principal, we will enter into a separate terms agreement with Cowen, and we will describe the agreement in a separate prospectus supplement or pricing supplement.
In connection with the sales of our common stock on our behalf, Cowen will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed in the sales agreement to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. As sales agent, Cowen will not engage in any transactions that stabilizes our common stock.
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market and trades under the symbol “PASG.” The transfer agent of our common stock is Computershare Trust Share Company, N.A.
Cowen and/or its affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking and other financial services for us for which services they have received and, may in the future receive, customary fees.
 
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LEGAL MATTERS
Fenwick & West LLP, San Francisco, California, will pass upon certain legal matters relating to the issuance and sale of the securities offered hereby on behalf of Passage Bio, Inc. Cowen and Company, LLC is being represented in connection with this offering by Cooley LLP, New York, New York.
EXPERTS
The financial statements of Passage Bio, Inc. as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and for the years then ended, have been incorporated by reference herein and in the registration statement in reliance upon the report of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
 
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$125,000,000
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_passage-4c.jpg]
Common Stock
PROSPECTUS
Cowen
March 5, 2021

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PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS
Item 14.
Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution
The following table sets forth estimated expenses in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered hereby. Each item listed is estimated, except for the SEC registration fee and FINRA filing fee.
SEC registration fee(1)
$ 13,637.50
FINRA filing fee
225,500
Printing and engraving*
*
Legal fees and expenses*
*
Accounting fees and expenses*
*
Transfer agent and registrar fees and expenses*
*
Miscellaneous expenses*
*
Total*
$ *
(1)
Represents registration fee applicable to amount included in prospectus for $125 million in shares of common stock. Additional registration fees deferred in reliance upon Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
*
These fees and expenses depend on the type of securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly, cannot be estimated at this time.
Item 15.
Indemnification of Officers and Directors
Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law authorizes a court to award, or a corporation’s board of directors to grant, indemnity to directors and officers under certain circumstances and subject to certain limitations. The terms of Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law are sufficiently broad to permit indemnification under certain circumstances for liabilities, including reimbursement of expenses incurred, arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act.
As permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, the Registrant’s restated certificate of incorporation contains provisions that eliminate the personal liability of its directors for monetary damages for any breach of fiduciary duties as a director, except liability for the following:

any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the Registrant or its stockholders;

acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

under Section 174 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (regarding unlawful dividends or stock purchases); or

any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.
As permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, the Registrant’s restated bylaws provide that:

the Registrant is required to indemnify its directors and executive officers to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, subject to limited exceptions;

the Registrant may indemnify its other employees and agents as set forth in the Delaware General Corporation Law;

the Registrant is required to advance expenses, as incurred, to its directors and executive officers in connection with a legal proceeding to the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, subject to limited exceptions; and
 
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the rights conferred in the restated bylaws are not exclusive.
The Registrant has entered, and intends to continue to enter, into indemnification agreements with each of its directors and executive officers to provide these directors and executive officers additional contractual assurances regarding the scope of the indemnification set forth in the Registrant’s restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws and to provide additional procedural protections. At present, there is no pending litigation or proceeding involving a director or executive officer of the Registrant for which indemnification is sought. The indemnification provisions in the Registrant’s restated certificate of incorporation, restated bylaws and the indemnification agreements entered into or to be entered into between the Registrant and each of its directors and executive officers may be sufficiently broad to permit indemnification of the Registrant’s directors and executive officers for liabilities arising under the Securities Act.
The Registrant currently carries liability insurance for its directors and officers.
Item 16.
Exhibits
The exhibits listed below are filed (except where otherwise indicated) as part of this Registration Statement.
Incorporated by Reference
Exhibit
Number
Exhibit Description
Form
File No.
Exhibit
Filing Date
Filed
Herewith
1.1* Form of Underwriting Agreement
1.2 Sales Agreement, dated March 5, 2021, by and between the Registrant and Cowen and Company, LLC
X
3.1
10-Q
001-39231
3.1
5/11/2020
3.2
8-K
001-39231
3.1
3/27/2020
4.1
S-1/A
333-236214
4.1
2/18/2020
4.2
S-1/A
333-236214
4.2
2/18/2020
4.3
X
4.4
X
4.5* Form of Warrant
4.6* Form of Warrant Agreement
4.7* Form of Preferred Stock Certificate
4.8*
Form of Subscription Rights Certificate
4.9* Form of Unit
4.10* Form of Unit Agreement
5.1
X
23.1
X
 
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Incorporated by Reference
Exhibit
Number
Exhibit Description
Form
File No.
Exhibit
Filing Date
Filed
Herewith
23.2
X
24.1
X
25.1** Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Senior Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.
25.2** Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Subordinated Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.
*
To be filed by amendment or as an exhibit to a report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended and incorporated herein by reference.
**
To be filed in accordance with the requirements of Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and Rule 5b-3 thereunder.
Item 17.
Undertakings
(a)   The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes:
(1)   To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
(i)   to include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;
(ii)   to reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and
(iii)   to include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;
provided, however, that subparagraphs (i), (ii), and (iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission by the Registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.
(2)   That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
 
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(3)   To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
(4)   That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:
(i)   Each prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and
(ii)   Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.
(5)   That, for the purpose of determining liability of the Registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned Registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned Registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned Registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:
(i)   any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned Registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;
(ii)   any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned Registrant;
(iii)   the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned Registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant; and
(iv)   any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned Registrant to the purchaser.
(b)   The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the Registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(c)   Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers, and controlling persons of the Registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the Registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer, or controlling person of the Registrant in
 
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the successful defense of any action, suit, or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer, or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the Registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
(d)   If and when applicable, the Registrant hereby further undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Securities and Exchange Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.
 
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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Philadelphia, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, on March 5, 2021.
PASSAGE BIO, INC.
By:
/s/ Bruce Goldsmith
Name: Dr. Bruce Goldsmith, Ph.D.
Title: Chief Executive Officer and President
 
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POWER OF ATTORNEY
KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints Bruce Goldsmith and Richard Morris, and each of them, as his or her true and lawful attorneys-in-fact, proxies and agents, each with full power of substitution, for him in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments to this registration statement (including post-effective amendments or any abbreviated registration statement and any amendments thereto filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) increasing the number of securities for which registration is sought), and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact, proxies and agents full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith, as fully for all intents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact, proxies and agents, or their or his substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
Signature
Title
Date
/s/ Bruce Goldsmith
Bruce Goldsmith, Ph.D.
Chief Executive Officer and Director
(Principal Executive Officer)
March 5, 2021
/s/ Richard Morris
Richard Morris
Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Accounting Officer and
Principal Financial Officer)
March 5, 2021
/s/ Tadataka Yamada
Tadataka Yamada, M.D.
Chair of the Board of Directors
March 5, 2021
/s/ Athena Countouriotis
Athena Countouriotis, M.D.
Director
March 5, 2021
/s/ Maxine Gowen
Maxine Gowen, Ph.D.
Director
March 5, 2021
/s/ Patrick Heron
Patrick Heron
Director
March 5, 2021
/s/ Saqib Islam
Saqib Islam
Director
March 5, 2021
/s/ Sandip Kapadia
Sandip Kapadia
Director
March 5, 20211
/s/ Liam Ratcliffe
Liam Ratcliffe M.D., Ph.D.
Director
March 5, 2021
/s/ Tom Woiwode
Tom Woiwode, Ph.D.
Director
March 5, 2021
 
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Exhibit 1.2 

 

PASSAGE BIO, INC.

COMMON STOCK

 

SALES AGREEMENT

 

March 5, 2021

 

Cowen and Company, LLC

599 Lexington Avenue

New York, NY 10022

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

Passage Bio, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”), as follows:

 

1.            Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein and any Terms Agreement (defined below), it may issue and sell to or through Cowen, acting as agent and/or principal, shares (the “Shares”) of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Common Stock”), having an aggregate offering price of up to $125,000,000. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitation set forth in this Section 1 on the number of shares of Common Stock issued and sold under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and Cowen shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The issuance and sale of Common Stock through Cowen will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) filed by the Company and after such Registration Statement has become automatically effective upon filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement (as defined below) to issue the Common Stock.

 

 

 

 

The Company shall file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Securities Act”), with the Commission an “automatic shelf registration statement” as defined under Rule 405 of the Securities Act on Form S-3, including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Common Stock, to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”). The Company has prepared a prospectus specifically relating to the Shares (the “ATM Prospectus”) included as part of such registration statement. The Company shall furnish to Cowen, for use by Cowen, copies of the ATM Prospectus included as part of such registration statement. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement, and any post-effective amendment thereto, as amended when it becomes effective, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B or 462(b) of the Securities Act, or any subsequent registration statement on Form S-3 filed pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act by the Company to cover any Shares, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The ATM Prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, and together with any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433 of the Securities Act regulations (“Rule 433”), relating to the Shares that (i) is consented to by Cowen (including any free writing prospectus prepared by the Company solely for use in connection with the offering contemplated by a particular Terms Agreement), hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus,” (ii) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company or (iii) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i), in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g), is herein called the “Prospectus.” Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein, and any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing after the execution hereof of any document with the Commission deemed to be incorporated by reference therein. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include any copy filed with the Commission pursuant to the Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval System (“EDGAR”).

 

2.            Agency and Principal Transactions. (a) Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell the Shares hereunder through Cowen, acting as agent (each, an “Agency Transaction”), it will notify Cowen by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) (a “Placement Notice”) containing the parameters in accordance with which it desires the Shares to be sold, which shall at a minimum include the number of Shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number or dollar amount of Shares that may be sold in any one Trading Day (as defined in Section 3) and any minimum price below which sales may not be made, a form of which containing such minimum sales parameters necessary is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 2 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from Cowen set forth on Schedule 2, as such Schedule 2 may be amended from time to time. The Placement Notice shall be effective upon receipt by Cowen unless and until (i) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, Cowen declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, (ii) the entire amount of the Shares have been sold, (iii) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Company suspends or terminates the Placement Notice for any reason, in its sole discretion, (iv) the Company issues a subsequent Placement Notice with parameters superseding those on the earlier dated Placement Notice, or (v) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 11. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to Cowen in connection with the sale of the Shares shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 3. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor Cowen will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to an Agency Transaction or any Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to Cowen and Cowen does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control.

 

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(b)            The Company may also offer to sell the Shares directly to Cowen, as principal, in which event such parties shall enter into a separate agreement (each, a “Terms Agreement”) in substantially the form of Schedule 2(b) hereto (with such changes thereto as may be agreed upon by the Company and Cowen), relating to such sale in accordance with Section 3(b) hereof (each such transaction being referred to as a “Principal Transaction”).

 

3.            Sale of Shares by Cowen. (a) Subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Company’s delivery of a Placement Notice with respect to an Agency Transaction, and unless the sale of the Shares described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, Cowen, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market, Inc. (“Nasdaq”) to sell such Shares up to the amount specified, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice. Cowen will provide written confirmation to the Company (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Shares hereunder setting forth the number of Shares sold on such day, the volume-weighted average price of the Shares sold, and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company. In the event the Company engages Cowen for a sale of Shares in an Agency Transaction that would constitute a “block” within the meaning of Rule 10b-18(a)(5) under the Exchange Act (a “Block Sale”), the Company will provide Cowen, at Cowen’s request and upon reasonable advance notice to the Company, on or prior to the Settlement Date, the opinions of counsel, accountant’s letter and officers’ certificates set forth in Section 8 hereof, each dated the Settlement Date, and such other documents and information as Cowen shall reasonably request. Cowen may sell Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act. Cowen shall not purchase any Shares for its own account as principal unless expressly authorized to do so by the Company in a Placement Notice. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that Cowen will be successful in selling Shares, and (ii) Cowen will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Shares for any reason other than a failure by Cowen to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such Shares as required under this Section 3. For the purposes hereof, “Trading Day” means any day on which the Company’s Common Stock is purchased and sold on the principal market on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted.

 

(b)(i)  If the Company wishes to issue and sell the Shares to Cowen pursuant to this Agreement in a Principal Transaction, it will notify Cowen of the proposed terms of the Principal Transaction. If Cowen, acting as principal, wishes to accept such proposed terms (which it may decline to do for any reason in its sole discretion) or, following discussions with the Company, wishes to accept amended terms, the Company and Cowen shall enter into a Terms Agreement setting forth the terms of such Principal Transaction.

 

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(ii)              The terms set forth in a Terms Agreement shall not be binding on the Company or Cowen unless and until the Company and Cowen have each executed and delivered such Terms Agreement accepting all of the terms of such Terms Agreement. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Terms Agreement, the terms of such Terms Agreement shall control.

 

(iii)             Each sale of the Shares to Cowen in a Principal Transaction shall be made in accordance with the terms of this Agreement and a Terms Agreement, which shall provide for the sale of such Shares to, and the purchase thereof by, Cowen. A Terms Agreement may also specify certain provisions relating to the reoffering of such Shares by Cowen. The commitment of Cowen to purchase the Shares pursuant to any Terms Agreement shall be deemed to have been made on the basis of the representations, warranties and agreements of the Company contained, and shall be subject to the terms and conditions set forth, in this Agreement and such Terms Agreement. Any such Terms Agreement shall specify the number of the Shares to be purchased by Cowen pursuant thereto, the price to be paid to the Company for such Shares, any provisions relating to rights of, and default by, Cowen in the reoffering of the Shares, and the time, date (each such time and date being referred to herein as a “Principal Settlement Date”) and place of delivery of and payment for such Shares.

 

(c)           Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, the Company shall not offer, sell or deliver, or request the offer or sale, of any Shares pursuant to this Agreement (whether in an Agency Transaction or a Principal Transaction) and, by notice to Cowen given by telephone (confirmed promptly by email), shall cancel any instructions for the offer or sale of any Shares, and Cowen shall not be obligated to offer or sell any Shares, (i) during any period in which the Company is, or would reasonably be deemed to be, in possession of material non-public information, or (ii) at any time from and including the date on which the Company shall issue a press release containing, or shall otherwise publicly announce, its earnings, revenues or other results of operations (an “Earnings Announcement”) through and including the time that the Company files a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or an Annual Report on Form 10-K that includes consolidated financial statements as of and for the same period or periods, as the case may be, covered by such Earnings Announcement.

 

4.            Suspension of Sales.

 

(a)          The Company or Cowen may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2), suspend any sale of Shares; provided, however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against the other unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule 2 hereto, as such schedule may be amended from time to time.

 

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(b)            If either Cowen or the Company has reason to believe that the exemptive provisions set forth in Rule 101(c)(1) of Regulation M under the Exchange Act are not satisfied with respect to the Common Stock, it shall promptly notify the other party, and Cowen may, at its sole discretion, suspend sales of the Shares under this Agreement.

 

(c)            Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Registration Statement is no longer effective under the Securities Act, the Company shall promptly notify Cowen, the Company shall not request the sale of any Shares, and Cowen shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Shares.

 

5.              Settlement.

 

(a)            Settlement of Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Shares in an Agency Transaction will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, an “Agency Settlement Date” and the first such Agency Settlement Date, the “First Delivery Date,” and any Agency Settlement Date and Principal Settlement Date shall be referred to as a “Settlement Date”)). The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by Cowen at which such Shares were sold, after deduction for (i) Cowen’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof or pursuant to any applicable Terms Agreement, (ii) any other amounts due and payable by the Company to Cowen hereunder pursuant to Section 7(g) (Expenses) hereof, and (iii) any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales.

 

(b)            Delivery of Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Shares being sold by crediting Cowen’s or its designee’s account (provided Cowen shall have given the Company written notice of such designee at least two Trading Days prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradeable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, Cowen will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date. The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver duly authorized Shares on a Settlement Date through no fault of Cowen, the Company agrees that in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 9(a) (Indemnification and Contribution) hereto, it will (i) hold Cowen harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or reasonable and documented expense (including reasonable and documented legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company and (ii) pay to Cowen (without duplication) any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.

 

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6.              Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, Cowen that as of (i) the date of this Agreement, (ii) each date on which the Company executes and delivers a Terms Agreement, (iii) each Time of Sale (defined below) is given, (iv) each Settlement Date, and (v) each Bring-Down Date (as defined below)(each such date included in (i) through (v) above, a “Representation Date”):

 

(a)            Compliance with Registration Requirements. The Registration Statement has become effective automatically upon filing with the Commission under the Securities Act. The Company has complied to the Commission’s satisfaction with all requests of the Commission for additional or supplemental information. No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement is in effect and no proceedings for such purpose have been instituted or are pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, contemplated or threatened by the Commission. The Company meets the requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act. The sale of the Shares hereunder meets the requirements or General Instruction I.B.1 of Form S-3.

 

(b)            No Misstatement or Omission. The Prospectus when filed complied and, as amended or supplemented, if applicable, will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act. Each of the Registration Statement and any post-effective amendments or supplements thereto, at the time it became effective or its date, as applicable, complied and as of each Representation Date, complied and will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act and did not and, as of each Representation Date, did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, as of its date, did not and, as of each Representation Date, will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The representations and warranties set forth in the two immediately preceding sentences do not apply to statements in or omissions from the Registration Statement or any post-effective amendment thereto, or the Prospectus, or any amendments or supplements thereto, made in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to Agent’s Information (defined below). There are no contracts or other documents required to be described in the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement which have not been described or filed as required. As used herein, “Time of Sale” means (i) with respect to each offering of Shares pursuant to this Agreement, the time of Cowen’s initial entry into contracts with purchasers for the sale of such Shares and (ii) with respect to each offering of Shares pursuant to any relevant Terms Agreement, the time of sale of such Shares to Cowen.

 

(c)            Offering Materials Furnished to Cowen. The Company has delivered to Cowen one complete copy of the Registration Statement and a copy of each consent and certificate of experts filed as a part thereof, and conformed copies of the Registration Statement (without exhibits) and the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, in such quantities and at such places as Cowen has reasonably requested. The Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus (to the extent any such Permitted Free Writing Prospectus was required to be filed with the Commission) delivered to Cowen for use in connection with the public offering of the Shares contemplated herein or by any Terms Agreement have been and will be identical to the versions of such documents transmitted to the Commission for filing via EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T.

 

(d)            Emerging Growth Company. As of the date of this Agreement, the Company is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act. The Company agrees to notify Cowen promptly upon the Company ceasing to be an emerging growth company.

 

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(e)            Not an Ineligible Issuer. The Company currently is not an “ineligible issuer,” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act. The Company agrees to notify Cowen promptly upon the Company becoming an “ineligible issuer.”

 

(f)            Distribution of Offering Material By the Company. The Company has not distributed and will not distribute, prior to the completion of Cowen’s distribution of the Shares, any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Shares other than the Prospectus or the Registration Statement.

 

(g)            The Sales Agreement; Terms Agreement. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by, and is a valid and binding agreement of, the Company, enforceable in accordance with its terms, except as rights to indemnification hereunder may be limited by applicable law and except as the enforcement hereof may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or other similar laws relating to or affecting the rights and remedies of creditors or by general equitable principles. Any Terms Agreement will have been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and, assuming due authorization, execution and delivery by the other parties thereto, will be a legal, valid and binding agreement of the Company enforceable in accordance with its terms, except as may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally, and by general equitable principles.

 

(h)            Authorization of the Common Stock. The Shares, when issued and delivered, will be duly authorized for issuance and sale pursuant to this Agreement and any Terms Agreement and, when issued and delivered by the Company against payment therefor pursuant to this Agreement, will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of any pledge, lien, encumbrance, security interest or other claim, and the issuance and sale of the Shares by the Company is not subject to preemptive or other similar rights arising by operation of law, under the organizational documents of the Company or under any agreement to which the Company or any Subsidiary is a party or otherwise.

 

(i)             No Applicable Registration or Other Similar Rights. There are no persons with registration or other similar rights to have any equity or debt securities registered for sale under the Registration Statement or included in the offering contemplated by this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, except for such rights as have been duly waived.

 

(j)             Financial Statements. The financial statements (including the related notes thereto) of the Company included in or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus comply in all material respects with the applicable requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, as applicable, and present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of the dates indicated and the results of its operations and the changes in its cash flows for the periods specified; such financial statements have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”) applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods covered thereby, and any supporting schedules included in the Registration Statement present fairly, in all material respects, the information required to be stated therein; and the other financial information included in or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus has been derived from the accounting records of the Company and presents fairly, in all material respects, the information shown thereby. If applicable, all disclosures included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus regarding “non-GAAP financial measures” (as such term is defined by the rules and regulations of the Commission) comply, to the extent applicable, with Regulation G of the Exchange Act and Item 10 of Regulation S-K of the Securities Act.

 

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(k)            No Material Adverse Change. Since the date of the most recent financial statements of the Company included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (i) there has not been any change in the capital stock (other than the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon exercise of stock options and warrants described as outstanding in, and the grant of options and awards under existing equity incentive plans described in, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus), short-term debt or long-term debt of the Company, or any dividend or distribution of any kind declared, set aside for payment, paid or made by the Company on any class of capital stock, or any material adverse change in or affecting the business, properties, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity, results of operations or prospects of the Company; (ii) the Company has not entered into any transaction or agreement (whether or not in the ordinary course of business) that is material to the Company or incurred any liability or obligation, direct or contingent, that is material to the Company; and (iii) the Company has not sustained any loss or interference with its business that is material to the Company and that is either from fire, explosion, flood or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any labor disturbance or dispute or any action, order or decree of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, except in each case as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

 

(l)             Organization and Good Standing. The Company has been duly organized and is validly existing and in good standing under the laws of its jurisdiction of organization, is duly qualified to do business and is in good standing in each jurisdiction in which its ownership or lease of property or the conduct of its business requires such qualification, and has all power and authority necessary to own or hold its properties and to conduct the business in which it is engaged, except where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing or have such power or authority would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the business, properties, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity, results of operations or prospects of the Company or on the performance by the Company of its obligations under this Agreement or any Terms Agreement (a “Material Adverse Effect” or Material Adverse Change). The Company does not own or control, directly or indirectly, any corporation, association or other entity.

 

(m)           CapitalizationThe Company has an authorized capitalization as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; all the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued and are fully paid and non-assessable and are not subject to any pre-emptive or similar rights; except as described in or expressly contemplated by the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there are no outstanding rights (including, without limitation, pre-emptive rights), warrants or options to acquire, or instruments convertible into or exchangeable for, any shares of capital stock or other equity interest in the Company, or any contract, commitment, agreement, understanding or arrangement of any kind relating to the issuance of any capital stock of the Company, any such convertible or exchangeable securities or any such rights, warrants or options; the capital stock of the Company conforms in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

 

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(n)            Stock OptionsWith respect to the stock options (the “Stock Options”) granted pursuant to the stock-based compensation plans of the Company (the “Company Stock Plans”), (i) each Stock Option intended to qualify as an “incentive stock option” under Section 422 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), so qualifies, (ii) each grant of a Stock Option was duly authorized no later than the date on which the grant of such Stock Option was by its terms to be effective (the “Grant Date”) by all necessary corporate action, including, as applicable, approval by the board of directors of the Company (or a duly constituted and authorized committee thereof) and any required stockholder approval by the necessary number of votes or written consents, and, to the knowledge of the Company (other than with respect to the execution and delivery by the Company), the award agreement governing such grant (if any) was duly executed and delivered by each party thereto, (iii) each such grant was made, in all material respects, in accordance with the terms of the Company Stock Plans, the applicable terms of the Exchange Act and all other applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements, including the rules of the Nasdaq Global Select Market (the “Exchange”) and any other exchange on which Company securities are traded, and (iv) each such grant was properly accounted for in accordance with GAAP in the financial statements (including the related notes) of the Company and disclosed in the Company’s filings with the Commission in accordance with the Exchange Act and all other applicable laws. Each Company Stock Plan is accurately described in all material respects in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. The Company has not knowingly granted, and there is no and has been no policy or practice of the Company of granting, Stock Options prior to, or otherwise coordinating the grant of Stock Options with, the release or other public announcement of material information regarding the Company or its results of operations or prospects.

 

(o)            No Violation or Default. The Company is not (i) in violation of its charter or by-laws or similar organizational documents; (ii) in default, and no event has occurred that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute such a default, in the due performance or observance of any term, covenant or condition contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which the Company is bound or to which any property or asset of the Company is subject; or (iii) in violation of any law or statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, except, in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such default or violation that would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(p)            No ConflictsThe execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, the issuance and sale of the Shares and the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement or any Terms Agreement and the Prospectus will not (i) conflict with or result in a breach or violation of any of the terms or provisions of, or constitute a default under, result in the termination, modification or acceleration of, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property, right or asset of the Company pursuant to, any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which the Company is bound or to which any property, right or asset of the Company is subject, (ii) result in any violation of the provisions of the charter or by-laws or similar organizational documents of the Company or (iii) result in the violation of any law or statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority having jurisdiction over the Company, except, in the case of clauses (i) and (iii) above, for any such conflict, breach, violation, default, lien, charge or encumbrance that would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(q)            No Consents Required. No consent, filing, approval, authorization, order, license, registration or qualification of or with any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority is required for the execution, delivery and performance by the Company of this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, the issuance and sale of the Shares and the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, except for (i) the registration of the Shares under the Securities Act, and (ii) such consents, approvals, authorizations, orders and registrations or qualifications as may be required by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”) and under applicable state securities laws in connection with the purchase and distribution of the Shares by Cowen.

 

(r)             Legal Proceedings. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there are no legal, governmental or regulatory investigations, actions, demands, claims, suits, arbitrations, inquiries or proceedings (“Actions”) pending to which the Company is a party or to which any property of the Company is the subject that, individually or in the aggregate, if determined adversely to the Company, would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; no such Actions are, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened or contemplated by any governmental or regulatory authority or threatened by others; and (i) there are no current or pending Actions that are required under the Securities Act to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus that are not so described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and (ii) there are no statutes, regulations or contracts or other documents that are required under the Securities Act to be filed or incorporated by reference as exhibits to the Registration Statement or described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus that are not so filed or incorporated by reference as exhibits to the Registration Statement or described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

 

(s)            Independent Accountants. KPMG LLP, which has certified certain financial statements of the Company, is an independent registered public accounting firm with respect to the Company within the applicable rules and regulations adopted by the Commission and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) and as required by the Securities Act.

 

(t)             Title to Real and Personal Property. The Company has good and marketable title to, or has valid rights to lease or otherwise use, all items of real and personal property that are material to the business of the Company, in each case free and clear of all liens, encumbrances, claims and defects and imperfections of title except those that (i) do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company or (ii) would not reasonably be expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(u)            Intellectual Property. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and as would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect: (i) the Company owns or possesses adequate rights or can acquire on reasonable terms sufficient licensed rights to use, all material patents, patent applications, trademarks, service marks, trade names, trademark registrations, service mark registrations, trade dress, designs, data, database rights, Internet domain names, copyrights, works of authorship, licenses, proprietary information and know-how (including trade secrets and other unpatented and/or unpatentable proprietary or confidential information, systems or procedures) (collectively, “Intellectual Property”) necessary for the conduct of its business as currently conducted and as proposed to be conducted in the Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Intellectual Property of the Company has not been adjudged by a court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid or unenforceable, in whole or in part, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such adjudication. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company has not received any written notice of any claim of infringement, misappropriation or conflict with any intellectual property rights of another,. The Company has not received any written notice of any claim of any facts or circumstances which would render any Intellectual Property of the Company invalid or inadequate to protect the interest of the Company. To the Company’s knowledge, and as would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect: (i) there are no third parties who have ownership rights to any Intellectual Property owned or exclusively licensed by the Company, except for ownership and customary reversionary rights of third-party licensors with respect to Intellectual Property that is disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as owned by or licensed to the Company; and (ii) there is no infringement by third parties of any Intellectual Property of the Company. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened in writing, action, suit, proceeding or claim by others: (A) challenging the Company’s rights in or to any Intellectual Property; or (B) challenging the validity, enforceability or scope of any Intellectual Property owned or exclusively licensed by the Company. The Company is unaware of any facts that would form a reasonable basis for an action, suit, proceeding or claim that, if asserted, would reasonably be expected to succeed, asserting that the Company would, upon the commercialization of any product described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus as under development, infringe, misappropriate or violate, any patent, trademark, trade name, service name, copyright, trade secret or other proprietary rights of others. The Company has complied in all material respects with the terms of each agreement pursuant to which Intellectual Property has been licensed to the Company, and all such agreements are in full force and effect. To the Company’s knowledge, there are no material defects in any of the patents or patent applications included in the Intellectual Property exclusively licensed by the Company. The Company has taken all commercially reasonable steps to protect, maintain and safeguard its Intellectual Property, including the execution of appropriate nondisclosure, confidentiality agreements and invention assignment agreements and invention assignments with its employees, and, to the knowledge of the Company, no employee of the Company is in or has been in violation of any term of any employment contract, patent disclosure agreement, invention assignment agreement, non-competition agreement, non-solicitation agreement, nondisclosure agreement, or any restrictive covenant to or with a former employer where the basis of such violation relates to such employee’s employment with the Company. The duty of candor and good faith as required by the United States Patent and Trademark Office during the prosecution of the United States patents and patent applications included in the Intellectual Property have been complied with by the Company and, to the knowledge of the Company, by the Company’s licensor; and in all foreign offices having similar requirements, all such requirements have been complied with by the Company and, to the knowledge of the Company, by the Company’s licensor. None of the Company owned Intellectual Property or technology (including information technology and outsourced arrangements) employed by the Company has been obtained or is being used by the Company in violation of any contractual obligation binding on the Company or any of its officers, directors or, to the knowledge of the Company, employees or otherwise in violation of the rights of any persons. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the lead product candidates described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as under development by the Company fall within the scope of the claims of one or more patents or patent applications owned by, or exclusively licensed to, the Company.

 

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(v)            Data Privacy and Security Laws. The Company is, and since its inception has been, in material compliance with all applicable state and federal data privacy and security laws and regulations, including without limitation the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”) as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (the “HITECH Act”) (collectively, the “Privacy Laws”). To ensure compliance with the Privacy Laws, the Company has in place, complies with, and takes appropriate steps reasonably designed to ensure compliance in all material respects with its, policies and procedures relating to data privacy and security and the collection, storage, use, disclosure, handling, and analysis of Personal Data (the “Policies”). “Personal Data” means (i) a natural person’s name, street address, telephone number, e-mail address, photograph, social security number or tax identification number, driver’s license number, passport number, credit card number, bank information, or customer or account number; (ii) any information which would qualify as “personally identifying information” under the Federal Trade Commission Act, as amended; (iii) Protected Health Information as defined by HIPAA; and (iv) any other piece of information that allows the identification of such natural person, or his or her family or household, or permits the collection or analysis of any data related to an identified person’s health or sexual orientation. The Company has at all times made all disclosures to users or customers required by applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements, and none of such disclosures made or contained in any Policy have, to the knowledge of the Company, been inaccurate or in violation of any applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements in any material respect. The Company further certifies that: (i) it has not received notice of any actual or potential liability under or relating to, or actual or potential violation of, any of the Privacy Laws, and has no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in any such notice; (ii) it is not currently conducting or paying for, in whole or in part, any investigation, remediation, or other corrective action pursuant to any Privacy Law; and (iii) is not a party to any order, decree, or agreement that imposes any obligation or liability under any Privacy Law.

 

(w)            Trade Secrets. The Company has taken reasonable and customary actions to protect its rights in and prevent the unauthorized use and disclosure of material trade secrets and confidential business information (including confidential source code, ideas, research and development information, know-how, formulas, compositions, technical data, designs, drawings, specifications, research records, records of inventions, test information, financial, marketing and business data, customer and supplier lists and information, pricing and cost information, business and marketing plans and proposals) owned by the Company, and, to the knowledge of the Company, there has been no unauthorized use or disclosure.

 

(x)             No Complaints. There is no complaint to or audit, proceeding, investigation (formal or informal) or claim currently pending against the Company, or to the knowledge of the Company, any of its customers (specific to the customer’s use of the products or services of the Company) by the Federal Trade Commission, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and any office contained therein (“HHS”), or any similar authority in any jurisdiction other than the United States or any other governmental entity, or by any person in respect of the collection, use or disclosure of Personal Data by the Company, and, to the knowledge of the Company, no such complaint, audit, proceeding, investigation or claim is threatened.

 

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(y)            FDA Compliance. The Company: (A) is and at all times has been in material compliance with all statutes, rules or regulations of the FDA and other comparable governmental entities applicable to the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, distribution, marketing, labeling, promotion, sale, offer for sale, storage, import, export or disposal of any product under development, manufactured or distributed by the Company (“Applicable Laws”); (B) has not received any FDA Form 483, notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other correspondence or notice from the FDA or any governmental entity alleging or asserting material noncompliance with any Applicable Laws or any licenses, certificates, approvals, clearances, exemptions, authorizations, permits and supplements or amendments thereto required by any such Applicable Laws (“Authorizations”); (C) possesses all material Authorizations and such Authorizations are valid and in full force and effect and the Company is not in material violation of any term of any such Authorizations; (D) has not received notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from the FDA or any governmental entity or third party alleging that any product operation or activity is in material violation of any Applicable Laws or Authorizations and has no knowledge that the FDA or any governmental entity or third party is considering any such claim, litigation, arbitration, action, suit, investigation or proceeding; (E) has not received notice that the FDA or any governmental entity has taken, is taking or intends to take action to limit, suspend, modify or revoke any material Authorizations and has no knowledge that the FDA or any governmental entity is considering such action; and (F) has filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Applicable Laws or Authorizations and that all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were materially complete and correct on the date filed (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission).

 

(z)             Tests and Preclinical Studies. The tests and preclinical studies conducted by or, to the Company’s knowledge, on behalf of the Company were and, if still ongoing, are being conducted in all material respects in accordance with experimental protocols, procedures and controls pursuant to all Authorizations and Applicable Laws, including, without limitation, protocols submitted to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder and current Good Clinical Practices and Good Laboratory Practices; the descriptions of the results of such tests and preclinical studies contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus are, to the Company’s knowledge, accurate and complete in all material respects and fairly present the data derived from such tests and preclinical studies in all material respects; except to the extent disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company is not aware of any studies or tests, the results of which the Company believes reasonably call into question the test or preclinical study results described or referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus when viewed in the context in which such results are described and the clinical state of development; and, except to the extent disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, the Company has not received any notices or correspondence from the FDA or any governmental entity requiring the termination or suspension of any studies, tests or preclinical or clinical trials conducted by or on behalf of the Company, other than ordinary course communications with respect to modifications in connection with the design and implementation of such studies or planned clinical trials, copies of which communications have been made available to Cowen.

 

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(aa)          Compliance with Health Care Laws. The Company is, and at all times has been, in material compliance with all Health Care Laws. For purposes of this Agreement, “Health Care Laws” means: (i) the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the Public Health Service Act, and the regulations promulgated thereunder; (ii) all applicable federal, state, local and foreign health care fraud and abuse laws, including, without limitation, the U.S. Anti-Kickback Statute (42 U.S.C. Section 1320a-7b(b)), the U.S. Civil False Claims Act (31 U.S.C. Section 3729 et seq.), the criminal False Statements Law (42 U.S.C. Section 1320a-7b(a)), 18 U.S.C. Sections 286, 287, 1035, 1347, and 1349 the health care fraud criminal provisions under HIPAA (42 U.S.C. Section 1320d et seq.), the civil monetary penalties law (42 U.S.C. Section 1320a-7a), the exclusions law (42 U.S.C. Section 1320a-7), laws governing government funded or sponsored healthcare programs; (iii) HIPAA, as amended by the HITECH Act, (42 U.S.C. Section 17921 et seq.); (iv) the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010; (v) licensure, quality, safety and accreditation requirements under applicable federal, state, local or foreign laws or regulatory bodies; and (vi) all other local, state, federal, national, supranational and foreign laws, relating to the regulation of the Company, and (vii) the directives and regulations promulgated pursuant to such statutes and any state or non-U.S. counterpart thereof; provided that “Heath Care Laws” shall not include Applicable Laws or Authorizations. The Company, its officers, directors, and to the knowledge of the Company, its employees or agents, have not engaged in activities which are, as applicable, cause for liability under a Health Care Law that, individually or in the aggregate, would be reasonably expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company has not received written notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority or third party alleging that any Company product operation or activity is in violation of any Health Care Laws nor, to the Company’s knowledge, is any such claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other similar action threatened. The Company has filed, maintained or submitted all material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Health Care Laws in all material respects, and all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were complete and accurate on the date filed in all material respects (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission). Neither the Company nor, to the Company’s knowledge, its officers, directors, employees or agents is a party to any corporate integrity agreements, monitoring agreements, consent decrees, settlement orders, or similar agreements with or imposed by any governmental or regulatory authority. Additionally, neither the Company nor its employees, officers, directors, or, to the Company’s knowledge, its agents has been excluded, suspended or debarred from participation in any U.S. federal health care program or human clinical research or is subject to a governmental inquiry, investigation, proceeding, or other similar action that would reasonably be expected to result in debarment, suspension, or exclusion therefrom.

 

(bb)          No Undisclosed Relationships. No relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company, on the one hand, and the directors, officers, stockholders, customers, suppliers or other affiliates of the Company, on the other, that is required by the Securities Act to be described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and that is not so described in such documents.

 

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(cc)          Investment Company Act. The Company is not, and after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Shares and the application of the proceeds thereof as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, will not be, required to register as an “investment company” or an entity “controlled” by an “investment company” within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder (collectively, the “Investment Company Act”).

 

(dd)          TaxesThe Company has paid all federal, state, local and foreign taxes and filed all tax returns required to be paid or filed through the date hereof (taking into account any valid extensions relating thereto), except for any taxes being contested in good faith by appropriate proceedings diligently conducted and for which adequate reserves have been taken; and except as otherwise disclosed in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, or where the failure to pay or file any such taxes would not have a Material Adverse Effect, there is no tax deficiency that has been, or would reasonably be expected to be, asserted against the Company or any of its properties or assets and which would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(ee)          Licenses and Permits. The Company possesses all licenses, sub-licenses, certificates, permits and other authorizations issued by, and have made all declarations and filings with, the appropriate federal, state, local or foreign governmental or regulatory authorities that are necessary for the ownership or lease of its properties or the conduct of its business as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, except where the failure to possess or make the same would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and except as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company has not received notice of any revocation or modification of any such license, sub-license, certificate, permit or authorization or has any reason to believe that any such license, sub-license, certificate, permit or authorization will not be renewed in the ordinary course. To the Company’s knowledge, no party granting any such licenses, certificates, permits and other authorizations has taken any action to limit, suspend or revoke the same in any material respect. The Company has filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required and that all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were materially complete and correct on the date filed (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission) as required for maintenance of its licenses, certificates, permits and other authorizations that are necessary for the conduct of its business.

 

(ff)            No Labor Disputes. No labor disturbance by or dispute with employees of the Company exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is contemplated or threatened, and the Company is not aware of any existing or imminent labor disturbance by, or dispute with, the employees of any of its principal suppliers, contractors or customers, except as would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company has not received any notice of cancellation or termination with respect to any collective bargaining agreement to which it is a party.

 

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(gg)          Certain Environmental Matters. (i) The Company (x) is in compliance with all, and have not violated any, applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws (including common law), rules, regulations, requirements, decisions, judgments, decrees, orders and other legally enforceable requirements relating to pollution or the protection of human health or safety, the environment, natural resources, hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants (collectively, “Environmental Laws”); (y) has received and are in compliance with all, and have not violated any, permits, licenses, certificates or other authorizations or approvals required of them under any Environmental Laws to conduct its business; and (z) has not received notice of any actual or potential liability or obligation under or relating to, or any actual or potential violation of, any Environmental Laws, including for the investigation or remediation of any disposal or release of hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants, and have no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in any such notice, and (ii) there are no costs or liabilities associated with Environmental Laws of or relating to the Company, except in the case of each of (i) and (ii) above, for any such matter as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and (iii) except as described in the Prospectus, (x) there is no proceeding that is pending, or that is known to be contemplated, against the Company under any Environmental Laws in which a governmental entity is also a party, other than such proceeding regarding which it is reasonably believed no monetary sanctions of $300,000 or more will be imposed, (y) the Company is not aware of any facts or issues regarding compliance with Environmental Laws, or liabilities or other obligations under Environmental Laws or concerning hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants, that would reasonably be expected to have a material effect on the capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position of the Company, and (z) the Company does not anticipate material capital expenditures relating to any Environmental Laws.

 

(hh)          Compliance with ERISA. (i) Each employee benefit plan, within the meaning of Section 3(3) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”), for which the Company or any member of its “Controlled Group” (defined as any entity, whether or not incorporated, that is under common control with the Company within the meaning of Section 4001(a)(14) of ERISA or any entity that would be regarded as a single employer with the Company under Section 414(b),(c),(m) or (o) of the Code) would have any liability (each, a “Plan”) has been maintained in compliance with its terms and the requirements of any applicable statutes, orders, rules and regulations, including but not limited to ERISA and the Code; (ii) no prohibited transaction, within the meaning of Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code, has occurred with respect to any Plan, excluding transactions effected pursuant to a statutory or administrative exemption; (iii) for each Plan that is subject to the funding rules of Section 412 of the Code or Section 302 of ERISA, no Plan has failed (whether or not waived), or is reasonably expected to fail, to satisfy the minimum funding standards (within the meaning of Section 302 of ERISA or Section 412 of the Code) applicable to such Plan; (iv) no Plan is, or is reasonably expected to be, in “at risk status” (within the meaning of Section 303(i) of ERISA) and no Plan that is a “multiemployer plan” within the meaning of Section 4001(a)(3) of ERISA is in “endangered status” or “critical status” (within the meaning of Sections 304 and 305 of ERISA) (v) the fair market value of the assets of each Plan exceeds the present value of all benefits accrued under such Plan (determined based on those assumptions used to fund such Plan); (vi) no “reportable event” (within the meaning of Section 4043(c) of ERISA and the regulations promulgated thereunder) has occurred or is reasonably expected to occur; (vii) each Plan that is intended to be qualified under Section 401(a) of the Code is so qualified, and nothing has occurred, whether by action or by failure to act, which would cause the loss of such qualification; (viii) neither the Company nor any member of the Controlled Group has incurred, nor reasonably expects to incur, any liability under Title IV of ERISA (other than contributions to the Plan or premiums to the Pension Benefit Guarantee Corporation, in the ordinary course and without default) in respect of a Plan (including a “multiemployer plan” within the meaning of Section 4001(a)(3) of ERISA); and (ix) none of the following events has occurred or is reasonably likely to occur: (A) a material increase in the aggregate amount of contributions required to be made to all Plans by the Company or its Controlled Group affiliates in the current fiscal year of the Company and its Controlled Group affiliates compared to the amount of such contributions made in the Company’s and its Controlled Group affiliates’ most recently completed fiscal year; or (B) a material increase in the Company’s “accumulated post-retirement benefit obligations” (within the meaning of Accounting Standards Codification Topic 715-60) compared to the amount of such obligations in the Company’s most recently completed fiscal year, except in each case with respect to the events or conditions set forth in (i) through (ix) hereof, as would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(ii)            Disclosure Controls. The Company has established an effective system of “disclosure controls and procedures” (as defined in Rule 13a-15(e) of the Exchange Act) that complies with the applicable requirements of the Exchange Act and that has been designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including controls and procedures designed to ensure that such information is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

 

(jj)            Accounting Controls. The Company has established systems of “internal control over financial reporting” (as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) of the Exchange Act) that comply with the applicable requirements of the Exchange Act and have been designed by, or under the supervision of, its principal executive and principal financial officers, or persons performing similar functions, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP. The Company maintains internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain asset accountability; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences; and (v) interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and is prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto. There are no material weaknesses in the Company’s internal controls. The Company’s auditors and the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors of the Company have been advised of: (i) all significant deficiencies and material weaknesses in the design or operation of internal controls over financial reporting which have adversely affected or are reasonably likely to adversely affect the Company’s ability to record, process, summarize and report financial information; and (ii) any fraud, whether or not material, that involves management or other employees who have a significant role in the Company’s internal controls over financial reporting.

 

(kk)          eXtensible Business Reporting Language. The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included in the Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

 

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(ll)            InsuranceThe Company has insurance covering its properties, operations, personnel and business, including business interruption insurance, which insurance is in amounts and insures against such losses and risks as are generally maintained by companies engaged in the same or similar businesses and at the same or similar stage of development, and which the Company reasonably believes are adequate to protect the Company and its business; and the Company (i) has not received notice from any insurer or agent of such insurer that capital improvements or other expenditures are required or necessary to be made in order to continue such insurance or (ii) does not have any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage at reasonable cost from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business.

 

(mm)        Cybersecurity; Data ProtectionThe Company’s information technology assets and equipment, computers, systems, networks, hardware, software, websites, applications, and databases (collectively, “IT Systems”) are adequate for, and operate and perform in all material respects as required in connection with the operation of the business of the Company as currently conducted, free and clear of all material bugs, errors, defects, Trojan horses, time bombs, malware and other corruptants. The Company has implemented and maintained commercially reasonable controls, policies, procedures, and safeguards to maintain and protect its material confidential information, Personal Data (as defined below) and the integrity of all essential IT Systems. As used herein “Personal Data” shall refer to all personal or regulated data that relates to an identified or identifiable natural person according to applicable law that is maintained by the Company. There have been no material breaches, violations, outages or unauthorized uses of or access to its material confidential information or Personal Data, except for those that have been remedied without material cost or liability or the duty to notify any other person, nor any related incidents under investigation by a governmental or regulatory authority. The Company is presently in material compliance with all applicable laws and contractual obligations relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Personal Data.

 

(nn)          No Unlawful Payments. Neither the Company nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer or employee of the Company or any agent, affiliate or other person associated with or acting on behalf of the Company has (i) used any corporate funds for any unlawful contribution, gift, entertainment or other unlawful expense relating to political activity; (ii) made or taken an act in furtherance of an offer, promise or authorization of any direct or indirect unlawful payment or benefit to any foreign or domestic government or regulatory official or employee, including of any government-owned or controlled entity or of a public international organization, or any person acting in an official capacity for or on behalf of any of the foregoing, or any political party or party official or candidate for political office; (iii) violated or is in violation of any provision of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or any applicable law or regulation implementing the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, or committed an offence under the Bribery Act 2010 of the United Kingdom or any other applicable anti-bribery or anti-corruption law; or (iv) made, offered, agreed, requested or taken an act in furtherance of any unlawful bribe or other unlawful benefit, including, without limitation, any rebate, payoff, influence payment, kickback or other unlawful or improper payment or benefit. The Company has instituted, maintains and enforces, and will continue to maintain and enforce policies and procedures designed to promote and ensure compliance with all applicable anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws.

 

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(oo)          Compliance with Anti-Money Laundering Laws. The operations of the Company are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements, including those of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, the applicable money laundering statutes of all jurisdictions where the Company conducts business, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules or regulations issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency of all jurisdictions where the Company conducts business (collectively, the “Anti-Money Laundering Laws”) and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company with respect to the Anti-Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.

 

(pp)          No Conflicts with Sanctions LawsNeither the Company nor, to the knowledge of the Company, its directors, officers, employees, agents, affiliates or other person associated with or acting on behalf of the Company is currently the subject or the target of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. government, (including, without limitation, the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury or the U.S. Department of State and including, without limitation, the designation as a “specially designated national” or “blocked person”), the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), nor is the Company located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject or target of Sanctions, including, without limitation, Crimea, Cuba, Iran, North Korea and Syria (each, a “Sanctioned Country”); and the Company will not directly or indirectly use the proceeds of the offering of the Shares hereunder, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other person or entity (i) to fund or facilitate any activities of or business with any person that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject or target of Sanctions, (ii) to fund or facilitate any activities of or business in any Sanctioned Country or (iii) in any other manner that will result in a violation by any person (including any person participating in the transaction, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise) of Sanctions. Since the Company’s inception, the Company has not knowingly engaged in and is not now knowingly engaged in any dealings or transactions with any person that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject or the target of Sanctions or with any Sanctioned Country.

 

(qq)          No Broker’s Fees. The Company is not a party to any contract, agreement or understanding with any person (other than this Agreement or any Terms Agreement) that would give rise to a valid claim against any of them or Cowen for a brokerage commission, finder’s fee or like payment in connection with the offering and sale of the Shares.

 

(rr)            No Stabilization. Neither the Company nor any of its affiliates has taken, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that would reasonably be expected to cause or result in any stabilization or manipulation of the price of the Shares.

 

(ss)           Margin Rules. Neither the issuance, sale and delivery of the Shares nor the application of the proceeds thereof by the Company as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus will violate Regulation T, U or X of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or any other regulation of such Board of Governors.

 

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(tt)            Forward-Looking Statements. No forward-looking statement (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act) included in any of the Registration Statement or the Prospectus has been made or reaffirmed without a reasonable basis or has been disclosed other than in good faith.

 

(uu)         Statistical and Market Data. Nothing has come to the attention of the Company that has caused the Company to believe that the statistical and market-related data included in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus is not based on or derived from sources that are reliable and accurate in all material respects.

 

(vv)         Sarbanes-Oxley Act. There is and has been no failure on the part of the Company or, to the knowledge of the Company, any of the Company’s directors or officers, in their capacities as such, to comply with any provision of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended and the rules and regulations promulgated in connection therewith (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), with which the Company is required to comply, including Section 402 related to loans.

 

(ww)        Status under the Securities Act. At the time of filing the Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto, at the earliest time thereafter that the Company or any offering participant made a bona fide offer (within the meaning of Rule 164(h)(2) under the Securities Act) of the Shares and at the date hereof, the Company is and was a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act. The Company has paid the registration fee for this offering pursuant to Rule 456(b)(1) under the Securities Act or will pay such fee within the time period required by such rule (without giving effect to the proviso therein) and in any event prior to the first Settlement Date.

 

(xx)            No Ratings. There are no debt securities, convertible securities or preferred stock issued or guaranteed by the Company that are rated by a “nationally recognized statistical rating organization”, as such term is defined in Section 3(a)(62) under the Exchange Act.

 

(yy)          Related Party Transactions. There are no business relationships or related-party transactions involving the Company or any Subsidiary or any other person required to be described in the Prospectus which have not been described as required.

 

(zz)           Exchange Act Compliance. The documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, at the time they were or hereafter are filed with the Commission, complied and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act, and, when read together with the other information in the Prospectus, at the Settlement Dates, will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

(aaa)        Listing. The Company is subject to and in compliance in all material respects with the reporting requirements of Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) or Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act and is listed on the Nasdaq, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or reasonably likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Stock from the Exchange, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or Nasdaq is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. All of the Shares that have been or may be sold under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement have been approved for listing on the Nasdaq, subject to official notice of issuance; the Company has taken all necessary actions to ensure that, upon and at all times after the Nasdaq shall have approved the Shares for listing, it will be in compliance with all applicable corporate governance requirements set forth in the Nasdaq’s listing rules that are then in effect.

 

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(bbb)      No Reliance. The Company has not relied upon Cowen or legal counsel for Cowen for any legal, tax or accounting advice in connection with the offering and sale of the Shares.

 

Any certificate signed by an officer of the Company and delivered to Cowen or to counsel for Cowen pursuant to or in connection with this Agreement or any Terms Agreement shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty by the Company to Cowen as to the matters set forth therein.

 

The Company acknowledges that Cowen and, for purposes of the opinions to be delivered pursuant to Section 7 hereof, counsel to the Company and counsel to Cowen, will rely upon the accuracy and truthfulness of the foregoing representations and hereby consents to such reliance.

 

7.            Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with Cowen that:

 

(a)          Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a Prospectus relating to any Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), (i) the Company will notify Cowen promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than documents incorporated by reference or amendments not related to the Shares, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information, (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon Cowen’s reasonable request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in Cowen’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable to comply with applicable law in connection with the distribution of the Shares by Cowen (provided, however, that the failure of Cowen to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement or any Terms Agreement and, provided further, that the only remedy Cowen shall have with respect to the failure to make such filing shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, relating to the Shares or a security convertible into the Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to Cowen within a reasonable period of time before the filing and Cowen has not reasonably objected thereto (provided, however, that (A) the failure of Cowen to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, and (B) the Company has no obligation to provide Cowen any advance copy of such filing or to provide Cowen an opportunity to object to such filing if the filing does not name Cowen or does not relate to the Placement Shares and (C) the only remedy Cowen shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to provide Cowen with such copy or the filing or such amendment or supplement despite Cowen’s objection shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement) and the Company will furnish to Cowen at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act, and (v) prior to the termination of this Agreement, the Company will notify Cowen if at any time the Registration Statement shall no longer be effective as a result of the passage of time pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act or otherwise. The determination to file or not file any amendment or supplement with the Commission under this Section 7(a), based on the Company’s reasonable opinion or reasonable objections shall be made exclusively by the Company.

 

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(b)            Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise Cowen, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued.

 

(c)            Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act with respect to a pending sale of the Shares, (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), the Company will comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and to file on or before their respective due dates all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify Cowen to suspend the offering of Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance; provided however, that the Company may delay any such amendment or supplement if, in the reasonable judgment of the Company, it is in the best interest of the Company to do so, provided that no Placement Notice is in effect during such time.

 

(d)            Listing of Shares. During any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act with respect to a pending sale of the Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Shares to be listed on Nasdaq and to qualify the Shares for sale under the securities laws of such jurisdictions as Cowen reasonably designates and to continue such qualifications in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Shares; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required in connection therewith to qualify as a foreign corporation or dealer in securities or file a general consent to service of process in any jurisdiction.

 

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(e)            Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to Cowen and its counsel (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all documents incorporated by reference therein) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Shares is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all documents filed with the Commission during such period that are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as Cowen may from time to time reasonably request and, at Cowen’s request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to Cowen to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

 

(f)             Earnings Statement. The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earnings statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) and Rule 158 of the Securities Act. For the avoidance of doubt, the Company’s compliance with the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act shall be deemed to satisfy this Section 7(f).

 

(g)            Expenses. The Company, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereunder are consummated or this Agreement is terminated, in accordance with the provisions of Section 11 hereunder, will pay the following expenses all incident to the performance of its obligations hereunder, including, but not limited to, expenses relating to (i) the preparation, printing and filing of the Registration Statement and each amendment and supplement thereto, of each Prospectus and of each amendment and supplement thereto, (ii) the preparation, issuance and delivery of the Shares, (iii) the qualification of the Shares under securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(d) of this Agreement, including filing fees (provided, however, that any fees or disbursements of counsel for Cowen in connection therewith shall be paid by Cowen except as set forth in (vii) below), (iv) the printing and delivery to Cowen of copies of the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto, and of this Agreement and any Terms Agreement, (v) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing or qualification of the Shares for trading on Nasdaq, (vi) the filing fees and expenses, if any, of the Commission, (vii) the filing fees and associated legal expenses of Cowen’s outside counsel for filings with the FINRA Corporate Financing Department, such legal expense reimbursement not to exceed $10,000 and, (viii) the reasonable fees and disbursements of Cowen’s counsel in an amount not to exceed $50,000.

 

(h)            Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”

 

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(i)             Notice of Other Sales. During the pendency of any Placement Notice given hereunder, and for three trading days following the termination of any Placement Notice given hereunder, the Company shall provide Cowen notice as promptly as reasonably possible before it offers to sell, contracts to sell, sells, grants any option to sell or otherwise disposes of any shares of Common Stock (other than Shares offered pursuant to the provisions of this Agreement or any Terms Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire Common Stock; provided, that such notice shall not be required in connection with the (i) issuance, grant or sale of Common Stock, options to purchase shares of Common Stock or any other equity awards (or equity linked awards) or Common Stock issuable upon the exercise or settlement of options or other equity awards (or equity linked awards) pursuant to any stock option, stock bonus, employee stock purchase or other stock plan or arrangement described in the Prospectus, (ii) the issuance of securities in connection with an acquisition, merger or sale or purchase of assets, or joint venture, commercial strategic or collaborative relationship, (iii) the issuance or sale of Common Stock pursuant to any dividend reinvestment plan that the Company may adopt from time to time provided the implementation of such is disclosed to Cowen in advance or (iv) any shares of common stock issuable upon the exchange, conversion or redemption of securities or the exercise or vesting of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding.

 

(j)             Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during a fiscal quarter in which the Company intends to tender a Placement Notice or sell Shares hereunder or pursuant to a Terms Agreement, advise Cowen promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document required to be provided to Cowen pursuant to this Agreement or any Terms Agreement; provided, that the Company may satisfy its obligations under this Section 7(j) by effecting a filing in accordance with the Exchange Act with respect to such information or fact.

 

(k)            Due Diligence Cooperation. During the term of this Agreement, the Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by Cowen or its agents in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby or by any Terms Agreement, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as Cowen may reasonably request.

 

(l)             Required Filings Relating to Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that on such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (each and every filing under Rule 424(b), a “Filing Date”), and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market. The Company shall disclose in its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and in its annual report on Form 10-K, the number of the Shares sold through Cowen under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement, and the Net Proceeds to the Company from the sale of the Shares and the compensation paid by the Company with respect to sales of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement during the relevant quarter or, in the case of an Annual Report on Form 10-K, during the fiscal year covered by such Annual Report and the fourth quarter of such fiscal year.

 

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(m)           Bring-Down Dates; Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and each time (i) the Company files the Prospectus relating to the Shares or amends or supplements the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Shares (other than a prospectus supplement filed in accordance with Section 7(l) of this Agreement) by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of document(s) by reference to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Shares; (ii) the Company files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act; (iii) the Company files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or (iv) the Company files a report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than an earnings release) under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a “Bring-Down Date”); the Company shall furnish Cowen with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) within three (3) Trading Days of any Bring-Down Date if requested by Cowen. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(m) shall be automatically waived for any Bring-Down Date occurring at a time at which no Agency Transaction is pending, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Bring-Down Date) and the next occurring Bring-Down Date; provided, however, that such waiver shall not apply for any Bring-Down Date on which the Company files its annual report on Form 10-K. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Shares in an Agency Transaction following a Bring-Down Date when the Company relied on such waiver and did not provide Cowen with a certificate under this Section 7(m), then before the Company delivers the Placement Notice or Cowen sells any Shares pursuant to such Agency Transaction, the Company shall provide Cowen with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m), dated the date of the Placement Notice. With respect to any Principal Transaction pursuant to a Terms Agreement, the certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) shall be delivered at the Principal Settlement Date.

 

(n)            Legal Opinion. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within three (3) Trading Days of each Bring-Down Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to Cowen a written opinion of Fenwick & West LLP (“Company Counsel”), or other counsel reasonably satisfactory to Cowen, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel, dated the date that the opinion is required to be delivered; provided, however, that in lieu of such opinions for subsequent Bring-Down Dates, counsel may furnish Cowen with a negative assurance letter (a “Letter”) dated the date that the opinion would otherwise be required. With respect to any Principal Transaction pursuant to a Terms Agreement, the Company shall cause to be furnished to Cowen on the Principal Settlement Date a written opinion of Company Counsel, or other counsel reasonably satisfactory to Cowen, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel, dated the Principal Settlement Date, substantially similar to the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(n)(i).

 

(o)            Comfort Letter. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within three (3) Trading Days of each Bring-Down Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause its independent accountants to furnish Cowen letters (the Comfort Letters), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Cowen, (i) confirming that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) stating, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to Cowen in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the Initial Comfort Letter) and (iii) updating the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter. With respect to any Principal Transaction pursuant to a Terms Agreement, the Company shall cause its independent accountants to furnish Cowen, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Cowen, Comfort Letters at the Time of Sale, dated the date of such Time of Sale, and on the Principal Settlement Date, dated the Principal Settlement Date.

 

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(p)            [Reserved]

 

(q)            Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or might reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase the Common Stock to be issued and sold pursuant to this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Shares other than Cowen; provided, however, that the Company may bid for and purchase shares of its common stock in accordance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act.

 

(r)             Insurance. The Company and its subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as is reasonable and customary for the business for which it is engaged.

 

(s)            Compliance with Laws. The Company and each of its subsidiaries shall use commercially reasonable efforts to maintain, or cause to be maintained, all applicable material environmental permits, licenses and other authorizations required by applicable federal, state and local law in order to conduct their businesses as described in the Prospectus, and the Company and each of its subsidiaries shall conduct their businesses, or cause their businesses to be conducted, in substantial compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations and with applicable environmental laws, except where the failure to maintain or be in compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change.

 

(t)             Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor its subsidiaries will be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act, assuming no change in the Commission’s current interpretation as to entities that are not considered an investment company.

 

(u)            Securities Act and Exchange Act. The Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the continuance of sales of, or dealings in, the Shares as contemplated by the provisions hereof and the Prospectus.

 

(v)            No Offer to Sell. Other than a Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, neither Cowen nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than Cowen in its capacity as such) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Common Stock hereunder.

 

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(w)           Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company and its subsidiaries will use commercially reasonable efforts to comply in all material respects with all effective applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

 

(w)           Affirmation. Each Placement Notice delivered by the Company to Cowen and each execution and delivery by the Company of a Terms Agreement shall be deemed to be (i) an affirmation that the representations, warranties and agreements of the Company herein contained and contained in any certificate delivered to Cowen pursuant hereto are true and correct at the time of delivery of such Placement Notice or the date of such Terms Agreement, as the case may be, and (ii) an undertaking that such representations, warranties and agreements will be true and correct on any applicable Time of Sale and Settlement Date, as though made at and as of each such time (it being understood that such representations, warranties and agreements shall relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the time of such Placement Notice acceptance or Terms Agreement, as the case may be.

 

(x)            Renewal. If immediately prior to the third anniversary (the “Renewal Deadline”) of the initial effective date of the Registration Statement, the aggregate gross sales price of Shares sold by the Company is less than the Maximum Amount and this Agreement has not expired or been terminated, the Company may, prior to the Renewal Deadline, file, if it has not already done so and is eligible to do so, a new shelf registration statement relating to the Shares, in a form reasonably satisfactory to Cowen, and, if not automatically effective, use its best efforts to cause such registration statement to be declared effective within 60 days after the Renewal Deadline. The Company may take any other action necessary or appropriate to permit the issuance and sale of the Shares to continue as contemplated in the expired registration statement relating to the Shares. References herein to the Registration Statement shall include such new shelf registration statement.

 

8.              Conditions to Cowen’s Obligations. The obligations of Cowen hereunder with respect to a Placement Notice or pursuant to any Terms Agreement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder and thereunder, to the completion by Cowen of a due diligence review satisfactory to Cowen in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by Cowen in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:

 

(a)            Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall be effective and shall be available for (i) all sales of Shares issued pursuant to all prior Placement Notices or any Terms Agreements and (ii) the sale of all Shares contemplated to be issued by pursuant to Placement Notice or any Terms Agreement.

 

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(b)            No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company or any of its subsidiaries of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, related Prospectus or such documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, that in the case of the Prospectus, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

(c)            No Misstatement or Material Omission. Cowen shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in Cowen’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in Cowen’s reasonable opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

 

(d)            Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change, on a consolidated basis, in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any Material Adverse Change or any development that would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change, or any downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities) by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), the effect of which, in the case of any such action by a rating organization described above, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.

 

(e)            Company Counsel Legal Opinion. Cowen shall have received the opinions of Company Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n).

 

(f)             Cowen Counsel Legal Opinion. Cowen shall have received from Cooley LLP, counsel for Cowen, such opinion or opinions, on or before the date on which the delivery of the Company Counsel legal opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n), with respect to such matters as Cowen may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they request for enabling them to pass upon such matters.

 

(g)            Comfort Letter. Cowen shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(o) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(o).

 

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(h)            Representation Certificate. Cowen shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(m).

 

(i)             Secretary’s Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and at each Principal Settlement Date, Cowen shall have received a certificate, signed on behalf of the Company by its corporate secretary, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel.

 

(j)             [Reserved]

 

(k)             No Suspension. Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on Nasdaq.

 

(l)             Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m), the Company shall have furnished to Cowen such appropriate further information, certificates and documents as Cowen may have reasonably requested. All such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents shall have been in compliance with the provisions hereof. The Company will furnish Cowen with such conformed copies of such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as Cowen shall have reasonably requested.

 

(m)           Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder or prior to any Principal Settlement Date shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424. If required by the Securities Act, the Company shall file a prospectus supplement or a supplement to a prospectus supplement in connection with any Principal Transaction pursuant to a Terms Agreement within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424.

 

(n)            Approval for Listing. The Shares shall either have been (i) approved for listing on Nasdaq, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Shares on Nasdaq at, or prior to, the issuance of any Placement Notice.

 

(o)            No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit Cowen to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 11(a).

 

9.              Indemnification and Contribution.

 

(a)            Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless Cowen, the directors, officers, partners, employees and agents of Cowen and each person, if any, who (i) controls Cowen within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with Cowen from and against any and all losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including, but not limited to, any and all reasonable investigative, legal and other expenses incurred in connection with, and any and all amounts paid in settlement (in accordance with Section 9(c)) of, any action, suit or proceeding between any of the indemnified parties and any indemnifying parties or between any indemnified party and any third party, or otherwise, or any claim asserted), as and when incurred, to which Cowen, or any such person, may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise, insofar as such losses, claims, liabilities, expenses or damages arise out of or are based, directly or indirectly, on (x) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or in any free writing prospectus, or (y) the omission or alleged omission to state in any such document a material fact required to be stated in it or necessary to make the statements in it not misleading; provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to the extent that such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage arises from the sale of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement or any Terms Agreement and is caused directly or indirectly by an untrue statement or omission, or alleged untrue statement or omission, made in reliance upon and in conformity with solely Agent’s Information. As used herein, “Agent’s Information” means, solely, the following information in the Prospectus: the third sentence of the ninth paragraph and the eleventh paragraph under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that the Company might otherwise have.

 

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(b)            Cowen Indemnification. Cowen agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company that signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Company against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 9(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto) or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information.

 

(c)            Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 9 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 9, notify each such indemnifying party of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 9 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 9 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any legal or other expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel to assume the defense of such action within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action, in each of which cases the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly as they are incurred after the indemnifying party receives a written invoice relating to fees, disbursements and other charges in reasonable detail. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 9 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party from all liability arising or that may arise out of such claim, action or proceeding.

 

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(d)            Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 9 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable from the Company or Cowen, the Company and Cowen will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit or proceeding or any claim asserted, but after deducting any contribution received by the Company from persons other than Cowen, such as persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act, officers of the Company who signed the Registration Statement and directors of the Company, who also may be liable for contribution) to which the Company and Cowen may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total Net Proceeds from the sale of the Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by Cowen from the sale of Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and Cowen, on the other, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or Cowen, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and Cowen agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 9(d) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense, or damage, or action in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 9(d) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 9(d), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action or claim to the extent consistent with Section 9(c) hereof. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 9(d), Cowen shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 9(d), any person who controls a party to this Agreement or any Terms Agreement within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any officers, directors, partners, employees or agents of Cowen, will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each director and officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 9(d), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 9(d) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 9(c) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 9(c) hereof.

 

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10.            Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 9 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of Cowen, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.

 

11.            Termination.

 

(a)            Cowen shall have the right by giving written notice as hereinafter specified at any time to terminate this Agreement if (i) any Material Adverse Change, or any development that would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change has occurred that, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen, would materially impair the ability of Cowen to sell the Shares hereunder, (ii) the Company shall have failed, refused or been unable to perform any agreement on its part to be performed hereunder; provided, however, in the case of any failure of the Company to deliver (or cause another person to deliver) any certification, opinion, or letter required under Sections 7(m), 7(n), or 7(o), Cowen’s right to terminate shall not arise unless such failure to deliver (or cause to be delivered) continues for more than thirty (30) days from the date such delivery was required; or (iii) any other condition of Cowen’s obligations hereunder is not fulfilled, or (iv), any suspension or limitation of trading in the Shares or in securities generally on Nasdaq shall have occurred. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g) (Expenses), Section 9 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 10 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 16 (Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction) and Section 17 (Waiver of Jury Trial) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If Cowen elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 11(a), Cowen shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 12 (Notices).

 

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(b)            In the case of any purchase by Cowen pursuant to a Terms Agreement, the obligations of Cowen pursuant to such Terms Agreement shall be subject to termination by Cowen at any time prior to or at the Principal Settlement Date if (A) since the time of execution of the Terms Agreement or the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, (i) there has been any Material Adverse Change; or (ii) there has occurred any outbreak or escalation of hostilities or other national or international calamity or crisis or change in economic, political or other conditions, the effect of which on the United States or international financial markets is such as to make it, in Cowen’s judgment, impracticable to market the Shares or enforce contracts for the sale of the Shares; or (iii) if trading in any securities of the Company has been suspended by the Commission or by the Nasdaq, or if trading generally on the Nasdaq over-the-counter market or the New York Stock Exchange has been suspended (including an automatic halt in trading pursuant to market-decline triggers, other than those in which solely program trading is temporarily halted), or limitations on prices for trading (other than limitations on hours or numbers of days of trading) have been fixed, or maximum ranges for prices for securities have been required, by such exchange or FINRA or the over-the-counter market or by order of the Commission or any other governmental authority; or (iv) if there has been any downgrade in the rating of any of the Company’s debt securities or preferred stock by any “nationally recognized statistical rating organization” (as defined under Section 3(a)(62) of the Exchange Act); or (v) any federal, state, local or foreign statute, regulation, rule or order of any court or other governmental authority has been enacted, published, decreed or otherwise promulgated which, in the opinion of Cowen, would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change; or (vi) any action has been taken by any federal, state, local or foreign government or agency in respect of its monetary or fiscal affairs which, in the reasonable opinion of Cowen, would reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the securities markets in the United States. If Cowen elects to terminate its obligations pursuant to this Section 11(b), the Company shall be notified promptly in writing.

 

(c)            The Company shall have the right, by giving two (2) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. Upon termination of this Agreement, the Company shall not have any liability to Cowen for any discount, commission or other compensation with respect to any Placement Shares not otherwise sold by Cowen under this Agreement.

 

(d)            Cowen shall have the right, by giving two (2) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

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(e)            Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 11, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Shares through Cowen on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein; provided that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(f)             This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 11(a), (b), (c), (d), or (e) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect.

 

(g)            Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by Cowen or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Shares, such Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

 

12.            Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement or any Terms Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified in this Agreement, and if sent to Cowen, shall be delivered to Cowen at Cowen and Company, LLC, 599 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10022, Attention: General Counsel, email: Bradley.friedman@cowen.com, with a copy to Cooley LLP, 55 Hudson Yards, New York, NY 10001, Attention: Daniel I. Goldberg, email: dgoldberg@cooley.com; or if sent to the Company, shall be delivered to Passage Bio, Inc., Two Commerce Square, 28th Floor, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103; Attention: Edgar B. Cale, General Counsel, with a copy to Fenwick & West LLP, 555 California Street, 12th Floor, San Francisco, CA 94104, Attention: Robert Freedman, email: RFreedman@fenwick.com. Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally or by verifiable facsimile transmission (with an original to follow) on or before 4:30 p.m., New York City time, on a Business Day (as defined below), or, if such day is not a Business Day on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier, (iii) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid) and (iv) when delivered by electronic communication (“Electronic Notice”), at the time the party sending Electronic Notice receives verification of receipt by the receiving party, other than via auto reply. For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Nasdaq and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.

 

 - 34 -

 

 

13.            Successors and Assigns. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and Cowen and their respective successors and the affiliates, controlling persons, officers and directors referred to in Section 9 hereof. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement or any Terms Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of such party. Nothing in this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto or their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement or any such Terms Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement or such Terms Agreement. Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement or any Terms Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that Cowen may assign its rights and obligations hereunder or under any Terms Agreement to an affiliate of Cowen without obtaining the Company’s consent.

 

14.            Adjustments for Share Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement or any Terms Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any share split, share dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Common Stock.

 

15.            Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability. This Agreement (including all schedules and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto), together with any Terms Agreement, constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement, nor any Terms Agreement, nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and Cowen. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement and any Terms Agreement.

 

16.            Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York without regard to the principles of conflicts of laws. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, borough of Manhattan, for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection with any transaction contemplated hereby or by any Terms Agreement, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is brought in an inconvenient forum or that the venue of such suit, action or proceeding is improper. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any manner permitted by law.

 

17.            Waiver of Jury Trial. The Company and Cowen each hereby irrevocably waives any right it may have to a trial by jury in respect of any claim based upon or arising out of this Agreement, any Terms Agreement or any transaction contemplated hereby or thereby.

 

 - 35 -

 

 

18.            Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:

 

(a)            Cowen has been retained solely to act as an arm’s length contractual counterparty to the Company in connection with the sale of the Shares contemplated hereby and any Terms Agreement and that no fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship between the Company and Cowen has been created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, irrespective of whether Cowen has advised or is advising the Company on other matters;

 

(b)            the Company is capable of evaluating and understanding and understands and accepts the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement or any Terms Agreement;

 

(c)            the Company has been advised that Cowen and its affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and that Cowen has no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship; and

 

(d)            the Company waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against Cowen, for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty and agrees that Cowen shall have no liability (whether direct or indirect) to the Company in respect of such a fiduciary claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on behalf of or in right of the Company, including stockholders, partners, employees or creditors of the Company.

 

19.            Counterparts. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Delivery of an executed Agreement or any Terms Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile or by electronic delivery of a portable document format (PDF) file (including any electronic signature covered by the U.S. federal ESIGN Act of 2000, Uniform Electronic Transactions Act, the Electronic Signatures and Records Act or other applicable law, e.g., www.docusign.com).

 

[Remainder of Page Intentionally Blank]

 

 - 36 -

 

 

If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and Cowen, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and Cowen.

 

  Very truly yours,
     
  COWEN AND COMPANY, LLC
     
     
  By: /s/ Michael Murphy
    Name: Michael Murphy
    Title: Managing Director

 

 

  ACCEPTED as of the date
  first-above written:
     
  PASSAGE BIO, INC.
     
     
  By: /s/ Bruce Goldsmith
  Name: Bruce Goldsmith
  Title: Chief Executive Officer

 

Signature page to Sales Agreement

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 1

 

form of PLACEMENT NOTICE

 

From:[                       ]

Cc:[                       ]

To:[                       ]

Subject:Cowen At the Market Offering—Placement Notice

 

Gentlemen:

 

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Sales Agreement between Passage Bio, Inc. (the “Company”), and Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”) dated March [__], 2021 (the “Agreement”), I hereby request on behalf of the Company that Cowen sell up to [ ] shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, at a minimum market price of $_______ per share. Sales should begin on the date of this Notice and shall continue until [DATE] [all shares are sold].

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 2

 

Notice Parties

 

Company

 

Bruce Goldsmith Chief Executive Officer
   
Richard Morris Chief Financial Officer

 

 

Cowen

 

Michael J. MurphyManaging Director
  
William FollisManaging Director

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 2(b)

 

PASSAGE BIO, INC.

 

COMMON STOCK

 


terms AGREEMENT

 

March [__], 2021

 

Cowen and Company, LLC

599 Lexington Avenue

New York, NY 10022

 

Ladies & Gentlemen:

 

Passage Bio, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), proposes, subject to the terms and conditions stated herein and in the Sales Agreement, dated March [●], 2021 (the “Sales Agreement”), between the Company and Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”), to issue and sell to Cowen the securities specified in the Schedule hereto (the “Purchased Securities”). Unless otherwise defined below, terms defined in the Sales Agreement shall have the same meanings when used herein.

 

Each of the provisions of the Sales Agreement not specifically related to the solicitation by Cowen, as agent of the Company, of offers to purchase securities is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, and shall be deemed to be part of this Terms Agreement to the same extent as if such provisions had been set forth in full herein. Each of the representations, warranties and agreements set forth therein shall be deemed to have been made as of the date of this Terms Agreement and the Settlement Date set forth in the Schedule hereto.

 

An amendment to the Registration Statement or a supplement to the Prospectus, as the case may be, relating to the Purchased Securities, in the form heretofore delivered to Cowen, is now proposed to be filed with the Commission.

 

Subject to the terms and conditions set forth herein and in the Sales Agreement which are incorporated herein by reference, the Company agrees to issue and sell to Cowen, and Cowen agrees to purchase from the Company, the Purchased Securities at the time and place and at the purchase price set forth in the Schedule hereto.

 

 2

 

 

Notwithstanding any provision of the Sales Agreement or this Terms Agreement to the contrary, the Company consents to Cowen trading in the Common Stock for Cowen’s own account and for the account of its clients at the same time as sales of the Purchased Securities occur pursuant to this Terms Agreement.

 

If the foregoing is in accordance with your understanding, please sign and return to us a counterpart hereof, whereupon this Terms Agreement, including those provisions of the Sales Agreement incorporated herein by reference, shall constitute a binding agreement between Cowen and the Company.

 

  PASSAGE BIO, INC.
     
  By:  
  Name:  
  Title:  

 

Accepted and agreed as of

the date first above written:

 

COWEN AND COMPANY, LLC

 

     
By:    
Name:    
Title:    

 

 3

 

 

Schedule to Terms Agreement

 

Title of Purchased Securities:

 

Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

 

Number of Shares of Purchased Securities:

 

[] Shares

 

Purchase Price Payable by Cowen:

 

$[] per Share

 

Method of and Specified Funds for Payment of Purchase Price:

 

[By wire transfer to a bank account specified by the Company in same day funds.]

 

Method of Delivery:

 

[To Cowen’s account, or the account of Cowen’s designee, at The Depository Trust Company via DWAC in return for payment of the purchase price.]

 

Settlement Date:

 

[], 20[]

 

Closing Location:

 

[]

 

Documents to be Delivered:

 

The following documents referred to in the Sales Agreement shall be delivered on the Settlement Date as a condition to the closing for the Purchased Securities (which documents shall be dated on or as of the Settlement Date and shall be appropriately updated to cover any Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses and any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses and any documents incorporated by reference therein):

 

 

(1) the opinion and negative assurance letter referred to in Section 8(e);

(2) the opinion and negative assurance letter referred to in Section 8(f)

(3) the “comfort letter” referred to in Section 8(g);

(4) the representation certificate referred to in Section 8(h); and

(5) the secretary’s certificate referred to in Section 8(i)

 

 

Time of sale: [] [a.m./p.m.] (New York City time) on [], []

 

Time of sale information:

 

    The number of shares of Purchased Securities set forth above.

 

 4

 

 

SCHEDULE 3

 

Compensation

 

Cowen shall be paid compensation up to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sales of Shares in an Agency Transaction pursuant to the terms of this Agreement.

 

 

 

 

Exhibit 7(m)

 

OFFICER CERTIFICATE

 

The undersigned, the duly qualified and elected _______________________, of Passage Bio, Inc. (“Company”), a Delaware corporation, does hereby certify in such capacity and on behalf of the Company, pursuant to Section 7(m) of the Sales Agreement dated March [__], 2021 (the “Sales Agreement”) between the Company and Cowen and Company, LLC, that to the best of the knowledge of the undersigned.

 

(i)             The representations and warranties of the Company in Section 6 of the Sales Agreement (A) to the extent such representations and warranties are subject to qualifications and exceptions contained therein relating to materiality or Material Adverse Change, are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date, and (B) to the extent such representations and warranties are not subject to any qualifications or exceptions, are true and correct in all material respects as of the date hereof as if made on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date; and

 

(ii)            The Company has complied with all agreements and satisfied all conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied pursuant to the Sales Agreement at or prior to the date hereof.

 

  By:  
    Name:
    Title:

 

 

Date: 

 

2

 

 

Exhibit 4.3

 

FORM OF DEBT SECURITY

 

[Face of Security]

 

PASSAGE BIO, INC.

 

[If applicable, insert—FOR PURPOSES OF THE ORIGINAL ISSUE DISCOUNT PROVISIONS OF THE INTERNAL REVENUE CODE OF 1986, THE ISSUE PRICE OF THIS SECURITY IS         % OF ITS PRINCIPAL AMOUNT AT STATED MATURITY SET FORTH BELOW (ITS “PRINCIPAL AMOUNT”), THE AMOUNT OF ORIGINAL ISSUE DISCOUNT IS         % OF ITS PRINCIPAL AMOUNT, THE YIELD TO MATURITY IS         % AND THE ISSUE DATE IS             ]

 

[IF THE SECURITY IS A GLOBAL SECURITY, INSERT—THIS NOTE IS A GLOBAL SECURITY. IT IS EXCHANGEABLE FOR NOTES REGISTERED IN THE NAME OF A PERSON OTHER THAN THE DEPOSITARY (AS HEREINAFTER DEFINED) OR ITS NOMINEE ONLY IN THE LIMITED CIRCUMSTANCES HEREINAFTER DESCRIBED AND MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED EXCEPT AS A WHOLE BY THE DEPOSITARY TO A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO THE DEPOSITARY OR ANOTHER NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY OR BY THE DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF THE DEPOSITARY TO A SUCCESSOR OF THE DEPOSITARY OR A NOMINEE OF SUCH SUCCESSOR DEPOSITARY.]

 

No.   $            
    CUSIP No.

 

Passage Bio, Inc., a Delaware corporation (herein called the “Company”, which term includes any successor corporation under the Indenture referred to on the reverse hereof), for value received, hereby promises to pay to, or registered assigns, the principal sum of                  Dollars on                  [if Security is to bear interest prior to maturity, insert—, and to pay interest thereon from                  or from the most recent Interest Payment Date to which interest has been paid or duly provided for, semi-annually on                  and                  in each year, commencing                 , at the rate of         % per annum, until the principal hereof is paid or made available for payment [if applicable, insert—, provided that any principal and premium, and any such installment of interest, which is overdue shall bear interest at the rate of % per annum (to the extent that the payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable), from the dates such amounts are due until they are paid or made available for payment, and such interest shall be payable on demand]]. The interest so payable, and punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date will, as provided in such Indenture, be paid to the Person in whose name this Security (or one or more predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the record date for such interest, which shall be the                  or                  (whether or not a Business Day), as the case may be, next preceding such Interest Payment Date. Any such interest not so punctually paid or duly provided for will forthwith cease to be payable to the Holder on such record date and may either be paid to the Person at the time this Security (or one or more predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such defaulted interest to be fixed by the Trustee, notice whereof shall be given to Holders of Securities of this series not less than 10 days prior to such special record date, or be paid at any time in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which the Securities of this series may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, all as more fully provided in said Indenture. [If the Security is not to bear interest prior to maturity, insert—The principal of this Security shall not bear interest except in the case of a default in payment of principal upon acceleration, upon redemption or at Stated Maturity and in such case the overdue principal and any overdue premium shall bear interest at the rate of         % per annum (to the extent that the payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable), from the dates such amounts are due until they are paid or made available for payment. Interest on any overdue principal or premium shall be payable on demand. [Any such interest on overdue principal or premium which is not paid on demand shall bear interest at the rate of         % per annum (to the extent that the payment of such interest on interest shall be legally enforceable), from the date of such demand until the amount so demanded is paid or made available for payment. Interest on any overdue interest shall be payable on demand.]].

 

Payment of the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and [any such] interest on this Security will be made at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in                  in such coin or currency of [the United States of America] as at the time of payment is legal tender for payment of public and private debts[; provided, however, that at the option of the Company payment of interest may be made by check mailed to the address of the Person entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the register of the Security maintained by the Registrar].

 

Reference is hereby made to the further provisions of this Security set forth on the reverse hereof, which further provisions shall for all purposes have the same effect as if set forth at this place.

 

1

 

 

Unless the certificate of authentication hereon has been manually executed by or on behalf of the Trustee under the Indenture referred to on the reverse hereof, this Security shall not be entitled to any benefit under the Indenture or be valid or obligatory for any purpose.

 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Company has caused this instrument to be duly executed under its corporate seal.

 

Dated: Passage Bio, Inc.
     
  By  
    [Title]

 

Attest and Countersign  
   
   
Secretary  

 

2

 

 

[Reverse of Security.]

 

PASSAGE BIO, INC.

 

This Security is one of a duly authorized issue of securities of the Company (herein called the “Securities”), issued and to be issued in one or more series under an Indenture dated as of                 , (herein called the “Indenture,” which term shall have the meaning assigned to it in such instrument), between the Company and                 , as trustee (herein called the “Trustee”, which term includes any successor trustee under the Indenture), to which the Indenture and all indentures supplemental thereto reference is hereby made for a statement of the respective rights, limitations or rights, duties and immunities thereunder of the Company, the Trustee and the Holders of the Securities and of the terms upon which the Securities are, and are to be, authenticated and delivered. This Security is one of the series designated on the face hereof [, limited in aggregate principal amount to $                ].

 

[If the Security is to be subordinated, insert—The indebtedness evidenced by this Security is, to the extent and in the manner set forth in the Indenture, expressly subordinated and subject in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all senior Indebtedness (as defined in the Indenture) of the Company. This Security is issued subject to such provisions of the Indenture, and each Holder of this Security, by accepting the same, agrees to and shall be bound by such provisions and authorizes and directs the Trustee on the Holder’s behalf to take such action as may be necessary or appropriate to acknowledge or effectuate such subordination as provided in the Indenture and appoints the Trustee such Holder’s attorney-in-fact for any and all such purposes.]

 

The Securities of this series are subject to redemption upon not less than 30 days’, and no more than 60 days, notice provided in the manner set forth in the Indenture, [(1) on in any year commencing with the year and ending with the year at the Redemption Price (as indicated below) equal to 100% of the principal amount, and (2)] at any time [on or after], as a whole or in part, at the election of the principal the following Redemption Prices (expressed as percentages of the principal amount, as indicated below): If redeemed [on or before ,         %, and if redeemed] during the 12-month period beginning of the years indicated,

 

Year  Redemption Price   Year   Redemption Price 
                
                
                

 

and thereafter at a Redemption Price equal to % of the principal amount together in the case of any such redemption with accrued interest to the Redemption Date, but interest installments whose Stated Maturity is on or prior to such Redemption Date will be payable to the Holders of such Securities of record at the close of business on the relevant record dates referred to on the face hereof, all as provided in the Indenture.

 

[If the Security is to be redeemable in part, insert—In the event of redemption of this Security in part only, a new Security or Securities of this series for the unredeemed portion hereof will be issued in the name of the Holder hereof upon the cancellation hereof.]

 

[If the Security is to be subject to repayment at the option of the Holder, insert—To be repaid at the option of the Holder, the Company must receive this Security, with the form of “Option to Elect Repayment” hereon duly completed, at an office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in (or at such other place of which the Company shall from time to time notify the Holder of this Security) not less than nor more than days prior to the Repayment Date (as defined therein). The exercise of the repayment option by the Holder shall be irrevocable.]

 

[If the Security is not to be subject to redemption at the option of the Company, insert—The Securities are not redeemable at the option of the Company prior to Maturity.]

 

[If the Security is not to be an Original Issue Discount Security, insert—If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of this series shall occur and be continuing, the principal of the Securities of this series may be declared due and payable in the manner and with the effect provided in the Indenture.]

 

The Indenture permits, with certain exceptions as therein provided, the amendment thereof and the modification of the rights and obligations of the Company and the rights of the Holders of the Securities of each Series under the Indenture to be affected at any time by the Company with the consent of the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities then outstanding of each Series to be affected.

 

3

 

 

The Indenture also contains provisions permitting the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series then outstanding, on behalf of the Holders of all Securities of such series, to waive compliance by the Company with certain provisions of the Indenture and certain past Defaults or Events of Default with respect to such Series under the Indenture and their consequences. Any such consent or waiver by the Holder of this Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such Holder and upon all future Holders of this Security and of any Security issued upon the registration of transfer hereof or in exchange herefor or in lieu hereof, whether or not notation of such consent of waiver is made upon this Security.

 

As provided in and subject to the provisions of the indenture, the Holder of this Security shall not have the right to institute any proceeding with respect to the Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee or for any other remedy thereunder, unless such Holder shall have previously given the Trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of this series, the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of this series then outstanding shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default as Trustee and offered the Trustee indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, and the Trustee shall not have received from the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of Securities of this series then outstanding a direction inconsistent with such request, and shall have failed to institute any such proceeding, for 60 days after receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity. The foregoing shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Holder of this Security for the enforcement of any payment of principal hereof or any premium or interest hereon on or after the respective due dates expressed herein.

 

No reference herein to the Indenture and no provision of this Security or of the Indenture shall alter or impair the obligation of the Company, which is absolute and unconditional, to pay the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and interest on this Security at the times, place and rate, and in the coin or currency, herein prescribed.

 

[If the Security is to be in registered form, insert—As provided in the Indenture and subject to certain limitations therein set forth, the transfer of this Security is registrable in the register of the Registrar, upon surrender of this Security for registration of transfer at the office or agency of the Company in any place where the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and interest on this Security are payable, duly endorsed by, or accompanied by a written instrument of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Registrar duly executed by, the Holder hereof or his attorney duly authorized in writing, and, thereupon one or more new Securities of this series, of authorized denominations and for the same aggregate principal amount, will be issued to the designated transferee or transferees.]

 

[The Securities of this series are issuable only in registered form in denominations of $       [and any integral multiple] [or increments of $       in excess] thereof. As provided in the Indenture and subject to certain limitations therein set forth, Securities of this series are exchangeable for a like aggregate principal amount of Securities of this series of a different authorized denomination, as requested by the Holder surrendering the same.]

 

[No service charge shall be made for any such registration of transfer or exchange, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection therewith.]

 

[Prior to due presentment of this Security for registration of transfer, the Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company or the Trustee may treat the Person in whose name this Security is registered as the owner hereof for all purposes, whether or not this Security be overdue, and neither the Company, the Trustee nor any such agent shall be affected by notice to the contrary.]

 

[If the Security is a Global Security, insert—“Global Security” and “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities evidencing all or a part of a series of Securities, issued to the Depositary (as hereinafter defined) for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depositary or its nominee. “Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as the Depositary by the Company.

 

No holder of any beneficial interest in this Security held on its behalf by a Depositary or a nominee of such Depositary shall have any rights under the Indenture with respect to such Global Security, and such Depositary or nominee may be treated by the Company, the Trustee, and any agent of the Company or the Trustee as the owner of such Global Security for all purposes whatsoever. Notwithstanding the foregoing, nothing herein shall impair, as between a Depositary and such holders of beneficial interests, the operation of customary practices governing the exercise of the rights of the Depositary as Holder of any Security.

 

This Security is exchangeable, in whole but not in part, for Securities registered in the names of Persons other than the Depositary or its nominee or in the name of a successor to the Depositary or a nominee of such successor depositary only if (i) the Depositary notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for this Note or if at any time such Depositary ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and, in either case, a successor depositary is not appointed by the Company within 90 days, (ii) the Company in its discretion at any time determines not to have all of the Securities of this series represented by one or more Global Security or Securities and notifies the Trustee thereof, or (iii) an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing with respect to the Securities of this series. If this Security is exchangeable pursuant to the preceding sentence, it shall be exchangeable for Securities issuable in authorized denominations and registered in such names as the Depositary holding this Security shall direct. Subject to the foregoing, this Security is not exchangeable, except for a Security or Securities of the same aggregate denominations to be registered in the name of such Depositary or its nominee or in the name of a successor to the Depositary or a nominee of such successor depositary.]

 

4

 

 

[The Indenture entitles Holders to receive annual reports with respect to the Trustee’s eligibility and qualifications to serve as Trustee by filing their names and addresses with the Trustee for that purpose within two years preceding and mailing of any such annual report.]

 

No recourse shall be had for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any, on) or interest on this Security, or for any claim based hereon, or otherwise in respect hereof, or based on or in respect of the Indenture of any indenture supplemental thereto, against any incorporator, stockholder, officer or director, as such, past, present or future, of the Company or any successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise, all such liability being, by the acceptance hereof and as part of the consideration for the issue hereof, expressly waived and released.

 

All terms used in this Security which are defined in the Indenture shall have the meanings assigned to them in the Indenture.

 

This Security, including without limitation the obligation of the Company contained herein to pay the principal of (and premium, if any, on) and interest on this Security in accordance with the terms hereof and of the Indenture, shall be construed in accordance with and governed by the laws of the State of New York.

[Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication.]

 

This is one of the Securities of the series designated herein referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

                                                                  , as

[Authenticating Agent for] the Trustee

 

By    
  Authorized Officer  

 

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Exhibit 4.4

 

PASSAGE BIO, INC.

 

And

 

             , as Trustee

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of                 ,

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ARTICLE 1 – DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE   1  
1.1 DEFINITIONS   1  
1.2. OTHER DEFINITIONS   4  
1.3. INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF TRUST INDENTURE ACT   4  
1.4. RULES OF CONSTRUCTION   5  
ARTICLE 2 – THE SECURITIES   5  
2.1. ISSUABLE IN SERIES   5  
2.2. ESTABLISHMENT OF TERMS OF SERIES OF SECURITIES   5  
2.3. EXECUTION AND AUTHENTICATION   8  
2.4. REGISTRAR AND PAYING AGENT   8  
2.5. PAYING AGENT TO HOLD ASSETS IN TRUST   9  
2.6. SECURITYHOLDER LISTS   9  
2.7. TRANSFER AND EXCHANGE   9  
2.8. REPLACEMENT SECURITIES   10  
2.9. OUTSTANDING SECURITIES   10  
2.10. WHEN TREASURY SECURITIES DISREGARDED; DETERMINATION OF HOLDERS’ ACTION   10  
2.11. TEMPORARY SECURITIES   10  
2.12. CANCELLATION   11  
2.13. PAYMENT OF INTEREST; DEFAULTED INTEREST; COMPUTATION OF INTEREST   11  
2.14. CUSIP NUMBER   11  
2.15. PROVISIONS FOR GLOBAL SECURITIES   12  
2.16. PERSONS DEEMED OWNERS   12  
ARTICLE 3 – REDEMPTION   13  
3.1. NOTICES TO TRUSTEE   13  
3.2. SELECTION BY TRUSTEE OF SECURITIES TO BE REDEEMED   13  
3.3. NOTICE OF REDEMPTION   13  
3.4. EFFECT OF NOTICE OF REDEMPTION   14  
3.5. DEPOSIT OF REDEMPTION PRICE   14  
3.6. SECURITIES REDEEMED IN PART   14  
ARTICLE 4 – COVENANTS   15  
4.1. PAYMENT OF SECURITIES   15  
4.2. SEC REPORTS   15  
4.3. WAIVER OF STAY, EXTENSION OR USURY LAWS   15  
4.4. COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATE   15  
4.5. CORPORATE EXISTENCE   15  
ARTICLE 5 – SUCCESSOR CORPORATION   16  
5.1. LIMITATION ON CONSOLIDATION, MERGER AND SALE OF ASSETS   16  
5.2. SUCCESSOR PERSON SUBSTITUTED   16  
ARTICLE 6 – DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES   17  
6.1. EVENTS OF DEFAULT   17  
6.2. ACCELERATION   18  
6.3. REMEDIES   18  
6.4. WAIVER OF PAST DEFAULTS AND EVENTS OF DEFAULT   18  
6.5. CONTROL BY MAJORITY   19  
6.6. LIMITATION ON SUITS   19  
6.7. RIGHTS OF HOLDERS TO RECEIVE PAYMENT   19  
6.8. COLLECTION SUIT BY TRUSTEE   20  
6.9. TRUSTEE MAY FILE PROOFS OF CLAIM   20  
6.10. PRIORITIES   20  
6.11. UNDERTAKING FOR COSTS   21  
ARTICLE 7 – TRUSTEE   21  
7.1. DUTIES OF TRUSTEE   21  
7.2. RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE   22  
7.3. INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE   22  
7.4. TRUSTEE’S DISCLAIMER   22  
7.5. NOTICE OF DEFAULT   22  
7.6. REPORTS BY TRUSTEE TO HOLDERS   23  
7.7. COMPENSATION AND INDEMNITY   23  

 

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7.8. REPLACEMENT OF TRUSTEE   23  
7.9. SUCCESSOR TRUSTEE BY CONSOLIDATION, MERGER OR CONVERSION   24  
7.10. ELIGIBILITY; DISQUALIFICATION   24  
7.11. PREFERENTIAL COLLECTION OF CLAIMS AGAINST COMPANY   24  
7.12. PAYING AGENTS   24  
ARTICLE 8 – AMENDMENTS, SUPPLEMENTS AND WAIVERS   24  
8.1. WITHOUT CONSENT OF HOLDERS   24  
8.2. WITH CONSENT OF HOLDERS   25  
8.3. COMPLIANCE WITH TRUST INDENTURE ACT   25  
8.4. REVOCATION AND EFFECT OF CONSENTS   26  
8.5. NOTATION ON OR EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES   26  
8.6. TRUSTEE TO SIGN AMENDMENTS, ETC.   26  
ARTICLE 9 – DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE   26  
9.1. DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE   26  
9.2. LEGAL DEFEASANCE   27  
9.3. COVENANT DEFEASANCE   27  
9.4. CONDITIONS TO LEGAL DEFEASANCE OR COVENANT DEFEASANCE   27  
9.5. DEPOSITED MONEY AND U.S. AND FOREIGN GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS TO BE HELD IN TRUST; OTHER MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS   28  
9.6. REINSTATEMENT   28  
9.7. MONEYS HELD BY PAYING AGENT   28  
9.8. MONEYS HELD BY TRUSTEE   29  
ARTICLE 10 – MISCELLANEOUS   29  
10.1. TRUST INDENTURE ACT CONTROLS   29  
10.2. NOTICES   29  
10.3. COMMUNICATIONS BY HOLDERS WITH OTHER HOLDERS   30  
10.4. CERTIFICATE AND OPINION AS TO CONDITIONS PRECEDENT   30  
10.5. STATEMENT REQUIRED IN CERTIFICATE AND OPINION   30  
10.6. RULES BY TRUSTEE AND AGENTS   30  
10.7. BUSINESS DAYS; LEGAL HOLIDAYS; PLACE OF PAYMENT   30  
10.8. GOVERNING LAW   30  
10.9. NO ADVERSE INTERPRETATION OF OTHER AGREEMENTS   30  
10.10. NO RECOURSE AGAINST OTHERS   31  
10.11. SUCCESSORS   31  
10.12. MULTIPLE COUNTERPARTS   31  
10.13. TABLE OF CONTENTS, HEADINGS, ETC.   31  
10.14. SEVERABILITY   31  
10.15. SECURITIES IN A FOREIGN CURRENCY OR IN EUROS   31  
10.16. JUDGMENT CURRENCY   32  

 

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INDENTURE, dated as of                 ,                 , by and between Passage Bio, Inc., a Delaware corporation, as Issuer (the “Company”) and                 , a                  organized under the laws of                         , as Trustee (the “Trustee”).

 

RECITALS OF THE COMPANY

 

The Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance from time to time of its debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series (the “Securities”), as herein provided, up to such principal amount as may from time to time be authorized in or pursuant to one or more resolutions of the Board of Directors or by supplemental indenture.

 

All things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company in accordance with its terms have been done, and the execution and delivery thereof have been in all respects duly authorized by the parties hereto.

 

NOW, THEREFORE, THIS INDENTURE WITNESSETH:

 

For and in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the Holders thereof, it is mutually agreed, for the equal and proportionate benefit of all Holders of the Securities of a Series thereof, as follows:

 

ARTICLE 1 –

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

 

1.1 DEFINITIONS.

 

“Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person which, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls, or is controlled by or is under common control with, such specified Person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlling,” “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any Person, means the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such Person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by agreement or otherwise.

 

“Agent” means any Registrar, Paying Agent, co-registrar or agent for service of notices and demands.

 

“Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any committee duly authorized to act therefor.

 

“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified pursuant to an Officers’ Certificate to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors of the Company and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification which has been delivered to the Trustee.

 

“Capital Stock” means, with respect to any Person, any and all shares or other equivalents (however designated) of capital stock, partnership interests or any other participation, right or other interest in the nature of an equity interest in such Person or any option, warrant or other security convertible into any of the foregoing.

 

“Company” means the party named as such in the first paragraph of this Indenture until a successor replaces such party pursuant to Article 5 of this Indenture, and thereafter means the successor and any other primary obligor on the Securities.

 

“Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by two Officers, one of whom must be its Chief Executive Officer or its Chief Financial Officer.

 

“Company Request” means any written request signed in the name of the Company by its Chief Executive Officer, its President, any Vice President, its Chief Financial Officer or its Treasurer and attested to by its Secretary or any Assistant Secretary.

 

“Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business shall be principally administered.

 

“Default” means any event that is, or that with the passing of time or giving of notice or both would be, an Event of Default.

 

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“Depository” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the Person designated as Depository for such Series by the Company, which Depository shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, until a successor Depository shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Depository” shall mean each Person who is then a Depository hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, such Persons.

 

“Dollars” means the currency of the United States of America.

 

“Euro” means the single currency of participating member states of the economic and monetary union as contemplated in the Treaty on European Union.

 

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

“Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of the United States of America.

 

“Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to Securities that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, (i) direct obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by, or acting as an agency or instrumentality of, such government, the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by such government, which, in either case under clauses (i) and (ii), are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

 

“GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles consistently applied as in effect in the United States of America from time to time.

 

“Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.2, evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities issued to the Depository for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depository or nominee, and bearing the legend set forth in Section 2.15(c) (or such other legend(s) as may be applied to such Securities in accordance with Section 2.2(24)).

 

“Holder” or “Securityholder” means the Person in whose name a Security is registered on the Registrar’s books.

 

“Indebtedness” means (without duplication), with respect to any Person, any indebtedness at any time outstanding, secured or unsecured, contingent or otherwise, which is for borrowed money (whether or not the recourse of the lender is to the whole of the assets of such Person or only to a portion thereof), or evidenced by bonds, notes, debentures or similar instruments, or representing the balance, deferred and unpaid, of the purchase price of any property (excluding any balances that constitute accounts payable or trade payables, and other accrued liabilities arising in the ordinary course of business), if and to the extent any of the foregoing indebtedness would appear as a liability upon a balance sheet of such Person prepared in accordance with GAAP.

 

“Indenture” means this Indenture as amended, restated or supplemented from time to time.

 

“Interest Payment Date,” when used with respect to any Security, means the Stated Maturity of an installment of interest on such Security.

 

“Lien” means, with respect to any property or assets of any Person, any mortgage or deed of trust, pledge, hypothecation, assignment, deposit arrangement, security interest, lien, charge, easement, encumbrance, preference, priority or other security agreement or preferential arrangement of any kind or nature whatsoever on or with respect to such property or assets (including, without limitation, any capitalized lease obligation, conditional sales or other title retention agreement having substantially the same economic effect as any of the foregoing).

 

“Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security, or an installment of principal, becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption, notice of option to elect payment or otherwise.

 

“Officer” means the Chief Executive Officer, the President, any Vice President, the Chief Financial Officer, the Treasurer or the Secretary of the Company, or any other officer designated by the Board of Directors, as the case may be.

 

“Officers’ Certificate” means, with respect to any Person, a certificate signed by the Chairman, Chief Executive Officer, President, any Vice President or Secretary and the Chief Financial Officer or any Treasurer of such Person, that shall comply with applicable provisions of this Indenture.

 

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“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion from legal counsel, which counsel is reasonably acceptable to the Trustee. The counsel may be an employee of or outside counsel to the Company.

 

“Person” means any individual, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government (including any agency or political subdivision thereof).

 

“Redemption Date,” when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, means the date fixed for such redemption pursuant to this Indenture.

 

“Responsible Officer,” when used with respect to the Trustee, means any officer within the corporate trust department or division of the Trustee (or any successor group of the Trustee) or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers, and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of his knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

 

“SEC” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission as constituted from time to time, or any successor performing substantially the same functions.

 

“Securities” means the securities that are issued under this Indenture, as amended, restated or supplemented from time to time pursuant to this Indenture.

 

“Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

 

“Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.1 and 2.2.

 

“Significant Subsidiary” means (i) any direct or indirect Subsidiary of the Company that would be a “significant subsidiary” as defined in Article 1, Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X, promulgated pursuant to the Securities Act, as such regulation is in effect on the date hereof, or (ii) any group of direct or indirect Subsidiaries of the Company that, taken together as a group, would be a “significant subsidiary” as defined in Article 1, Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X, promulgated pursuant to the Securities Act, as such regulation is in effect on the date hereof.

 

“Stated Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security and the interest thereon, or such installment of principal or interest, is due and payable, and when used with respect to any other Indebtedness, means the date specified in the instrument governing such Indebtedness as the fixed date on which the principal of such Indebtedness, or any installment of interest thereon, is due and payable.

 

“Subsidiary” of any specified Person means any corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, association or other business entity, whether now existing or hereafter organized or acquired, (i) in the case of a corporation, of which more than 50% of the total voting power of the Capital Stock entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors thereof is held, directly or indirectly, by such Person or any of its Subsidiaries; or (ii) in the case of a partnership, joint venture, association or other business entity, with respect to which such Person or any of its Subsidiaries has the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of such entity by contract or otherwise, or if in accordance with GAAP such entity is consolidated with such Person for financial statement purposes.

 

“TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code Section 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture (except as provided in Section 8.3).

 

“Trustee” means the party named as such in this Indenture until a successor replaces it pursuant to this Indenture, and thereafter means the successor, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

 

“U.S. Government Obligations” means direct non-callable obligations of, or non-callable obligations guaranteed by, the United States of America for the payment of which obligation or guarantee the full faith and credit of the United States of America is pledged.

 

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1.2. OTHER DEFINITIONS.

 

The definitions of the following terms may be found in the sections indicated as follows:

 

TERM   DEFINED IN SECTION
“Bankruptcy Law”   6.1
   
“Business Day”   10.7
   
“Covenant Defeasance”   9.3
   
“Custodian”   6.1
   
“Event of Default”   6.1
   
“Journal”   10.15
   
“Judgment Currency”   10.16
   
“Legal Defeasance”   9.2
   
“Legal Holiday”   10.7
   
“Market Exchange Rate”   10.15
   
“New York Paying Agent”   2.4
   
“Paying Agent”   2.4
   
“Place of Payment”   10.7
   
“Registrar”   2.4
   
“Required Currency”   10.16
   
“Service Agent”   2.4

 

1.3. INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF TRUST INDENTURE ACT.

 

Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the portion of such provision required to be incorporated herein in order for this Indenture to be qualified under the TIA is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

 

“Commission” means the SEC.

 

“Indenture securities” means the Securities.

 

“Indenture securityholder” means a Holder or Securityholder.

 

“Indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.

 

“Indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.

 

“Obligor on the indenture securities” means the Company or any other obligor on the Securities.

 

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined in the TIA by reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule have the meanings therein assigned to them.

 

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1.4. RULES OF CONSTRUCTION.

 

Unless the context otherwise requires:

 

(1) a term has the meaning assigned to it herein, whether defined expressly or by reference;

 

(2) unless otherwise specified herein, all accounting terms used herein shall be interpreted, all accounting determinations hereunder shall be made, and all financial statements required to be delivered hereunder shall be prepared in accordance with GAAP;

 

(3) “or” is not exclusive;

 

(4) words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular;

 

(5) words used herein implying any gender shall apply to each gender;

 

(6) the words “herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision; and

 

(7) “$,” refers to Dollars, or such other money of the United States that at the time of payment is legal tender for payment of public and private debts.

 

ARTICLE 2 –

THE SECURITIES

 

2.1. ISSUABLE IN SERIES.

 

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is $            ,             ,             . The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to the authority granted under a Board Resolution. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, Stated Maturity, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, PROVIDED, that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of the Indenture.

 

2.2. ESTABLISHMENT OF TERMS OF SERIES OF SECURITIES.

 

At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection 2.2(1) and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.2(2) through 2.2(24)) by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, in each case, pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution:

 

(1) the title of the Series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series);

 

(2) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Section 2.7, 2.8, 2.11, 3.6 or 8.5);

 

(3) the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

 

(4) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

 

(5) the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any Interest Payment Date;

 

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(6) the place or places where the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series shall be payable, or the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;

 

(7) if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

(8) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof, and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and

the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

(9) the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof, and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

 

(10) if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

 

(11) the forms of the Securities of the Series in bearer (if to be issued outside of the United States of America) or fully registered form (and, if in fully registered form, whether the Securities will be issuable as Global Securities);

 

(12) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2;

 

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(13) the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, including, but not limited to, the Euro, and, if such currency of denomination is a composite currency other than the Euro, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

 

(14) the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series will be made;

 

(15) if payments of principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

 

(16) the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, or interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series will be determined, if such amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

 

(17) the provisions, if any, relating to any collateral provided for the Securities of the Series;

 

(18) any addition to or change in the covenants set forth in Articles 4 or 5 that applies to Securities of the Series;

 

(19) any addition to or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series, any provision for the payment of additional interest or liquidated damages in connection with any Event of Default, and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.2;

 

(20) the terms and conditions, if any, for conversion of the Securities into or exchange of the Securities for shares of common stock, preferred stock, other debt securities, or warrants, subscription rights or units for common stock, preferred stock or other securities of any kind of the Company that apply to Securities of the Series;

 

(21) any Trustees, depositories, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein;

 

(22) the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Securities shall be subordinated in right of payment to other Indebtedness of the Company;

 

(23) if applicable, that the Securities of the Series, in whole or any specified part, shall be defeasible pursuant to Article 9; and

 

(24) any other terms of the Securities of the Series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, except as permitted by Section 8.1, but which may modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series).

 

All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time, and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate referred to above, however, the authorized principal amount of any Series may not be increased to provide for issuances of additional Securities of such Series, unless otherwise provided in such Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate.

 

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2.3. EXECUTION AND AUTHENTICATION.

 

The Securities shall be executed on behalf of the Company by two Officers of the Company or an Officer and an Assistant Secretary of the Company. Each such signature may be either manual or facsimile. The Company’s seal may be impressed, affixed, imprinted or reproduced on the Securities and may be in facsimile form.

 

If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.

 

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture. The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Such Company Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to oral or electronic instructions from the Company or its duly authorized agent or agents, which oral instructions shall be promptly confirmed in writing. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

 

The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2, except as provided in Section 2.8.

 

Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.1) shall be fully protected in relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officers’ Certificate complying with Section 10.4, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 10.4.

 

The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of any Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised in writing by outside counsel, determines that such action may not lawfully be taken; or (b) if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors or trustees, executive committee or a trust committee of directors and/or vice-presidents shall reasonably determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability, or cause it to have a conflict of interest with respect to Holders of any then outstanding Series of Securities.

 

The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Any appointment shall be evidenced by an instrument signed by an authorized officer of the Trustee, a copy of which shall be furnished to the Company. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.

 

2.4. REGISTRAR AND PAYING AGENT.

 

The Company shall maintain in each Place of Payment for any Series of Securities (i) an office or agency where such Securities may be presented for registration of transfer or for exchange (“Registrar”), (ii) an office or agency where such Securities may be presented for payment (“Paying Agent”),and PROVIDED, that at the option of the Company payment of interest may be made by check mailed to the address of the Person entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the register for the Securities maintained by the Registrar), and (iii) an office or agency where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities and this Indenture may be served (“Service Agent”). The Registrar shall keep a register of the Securities and of their transfer and exchange. The Company may have one or more co-Registrars and Service Agents and one or more additional Paying Agents. The Company shall give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the location, and any change in the location, of such office or agency. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office, or to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the address of the Trustee as set forth in Section 10.2. The Company or any of its Subsidiaries may also act as Paying Agent. If the Company acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate the money held by it for the payment of principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities and hold it as a separate trust fund. The Company may change any Paying Agent, Registrar, co-registrar, Service Agent or any other Agent without notice to any Securityholder.

 

The Company may also from time to time designate one or more other offices or agencies where the Securities may be presented or surrendered for any or all such purposes, and may from time to time rescind such designations; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligation to maintain an office or agency in each Place of Payment for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Company hereby initially designates the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee as such office of the Company. The Company shall give prompt written notice to the Trustee of such designation or rescission, and of any change in the location of any such other office or agency.

 

The Company shall enter into an appropriate agency agreement with any Registrar, Paying Agent or Service Agent not a party to this Indenture. The agreement shall implement the provisions of this Indenture that relate to such Agent. The Company shall notify the Trustee of the name and address of any such Agent. If the Company fails to maintain a Registrar, Paying Agent, or Service Agent and demands, or fails to give the foregoing notice, the Trustee shall act as such. The Company hereby appoints the Trustee as the initial Registrar, Paying Agent and Service Agent for each Series unless another Registrar, Paying Agent or Service Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued. The Company designates, as the New York Paying Agent, with offices at:  .

 

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2.5. PAYING AGENT TO HOLD ASSETS IN TRUST.

 

The Trustee as Paying Agent shall, and the Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that each Paying Agent shall, hold in trust for the benefit of the Holders of any Series of Securities or the Trustee all assets held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, such Series of Securities (whether such assets have been distributed to it by the Company or any other obligor on such Series of Securities), and the Company and the Paying Agent shall notify the Trustee in writing of any Default by the Company (or any other obligor on such Series of Securities) in making any such payment. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to distribute all assets held by it to the Trustee and account for any assets disbursed, and the Trustee may, at any time during the continuance of any payment default with respect to any Series of Securities, upon written request to a Paying Agent, require such Paying Agent to distribute all assets held by it to the Trustee and to account for any assets distributed. Upon distribution to the Trustee of all assets that shall have been delivered by the Company to the Paying Agent, the Paying Agent shall have no further liability for such assets.

 

2.6. SECURITYHOLDER LISTS.

 

The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities. If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee as of each regular record date for the payment of interest on the Securities of a Series and before each related Interest Payment Date, and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, a list in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.

 

2.7. TRANSFER AND EXCHANGE.

 

When Securities of a Series are presented by the Holder to the Registrar with a request to register the transfer thereof, the Registrar shall register the transfer as requested if the requirements of applicable law are met, and when such Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar with a request to exchange them for an equal principal amount of other authorized denominations of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall make the exchange as requested. To permit transfers and exchanges, upon surrender of any Security for registration of transfer at the office or agency maintained pursuant to Section 2.4, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request.

 

If Securities are issued as Global Securities, the provisions of Section 2.15 shall apply.

 

All Securities issued upon any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities shall be the valid obligations of the Company, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such registration of transfer or exchange.

 

Every Security presented or surrendered for registration of transfer or for exchange shall (if so required by the Company or the Registrar or a co-registrar) be duly endorsed, or be accompanied by a written instrument of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Registrar or a co-registrar, duly executed by the Holder thereof or his attorney duly authorized in writing.

 

Any exchange or transfer shall be without charge, except that the Company may require payment by the Holder of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation to a transfer or exchange, but this provision shall not apply to any exchange pursuant to Section 2.11, 3.6 or 8.5. The Trustee shall not be required to register transfers of Securities of any Series, or to exchange Securities of any Series, for a period of 15 days before the record date for selection for redemption of such Securities. The Trustee shall not be required to exchange or register transfers of Securities of any Series called or being called for redemption in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of such Security being redeemed in part.

 

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2.8. REPLACEMENT SECURITIES.

 

If a mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, or if the Holder of a Security presents evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee that the Security has been lost, destroyed or wrongfully taken, the Company shall issue and the Trustee shall authenticate a replacement Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding. An indemnity bond may be required by the Company or the Trustee that is sufficient in the reasonable judgment of the Company or the Trustee, as the case may be, to protect the Company, the Trustee or any Agent from any loss which any of them may suffer if a Security is replaced. The Company may charge such Holder for the Company’s out-of-pocket expenses in replacing a Security, including the fees and expenses of the Trustee. Every replacement Security shall constitute an original additional obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder.

 

2.9. OUTSTANDING SECURITIES.

 

Securities outstanding at any time are all Securities authenticated by the Trustee, except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation and those described in this Section 2.9 as not outstanding.

 

If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.8 (other than a mutilated Security surrendered for replacement), it ceases to be outstanding until the Company and the Trustee receive proof satisfactory to each of them that the replaced Security is held by a bona fide purchaser. A mutilated Security ceases to be outstanding upon surrender of such Security and replacement thereof pursuant to Section 2.8.

 

If a Paying Agent holds on a Redemption Date or the Stated Maturity money sufficient to pay the principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest on, Securities payable on that date, and is not prohibited from paying such money to the Holders thereof pursuant to the terms of this Indenture (PROVIDED, that if such Securities are to be redeemed, notice of such redemption has been duly given pursuant to this Indenture or provision therefor satisfactory to the Trustee has been made), then on and after that date and upon payment of such money to the Holder, such Securities will be cancelled and cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue.

 

A Security does not cease to be outstanding solely because the Company or an Affiliate holds the Security.

 

2.10. WHEN TREASURY SECURITIES DISREGARDED; DETERMINATION OF HOLDERS’ ACTION.

 

In determining whether the Holders of the required aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any Series have concurred in any direction, waiver or consent, the Securities of any Series owned by the Company or any other obligor on such Securities, or by any Affiliate of any of them, shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, waiver or consent, only Securities of such Series which the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities of such Series so owned which have been pledged in good faith shall not be disregarded if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to the Securities of such Series and that the pledgee is not the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of such Series, or an Affiliate of any of them.

 

2.11. TEMPORARY SECURITIES.

 

Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate, temporary Securities. Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form, and shall carry all rights, of definitive Securities, but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate, definitive Securities in exchange for temporary Securities without charge to the Holder.

 

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2.12. CANCELLATION.

 

All Securities surrendered for payment, redemption or registration of transfer or exchange, or for credit against any sinking fund payment, shall, if surrendered to any Person other than the Trustee, be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation. The Company may at any time deliver to the Trustee for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated and delivered hereunder which the Company may have acquired in any manner whatsoever, and may deliver to the Trustee (or to any other Person for delivery to the Trustee) for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated hereunder which the Company has not issued and sold. The Registrar and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee or, at the direction of the Trustee, the Registrar or the Paying Agent, and no one else, shall cancel, and at the written request of the Company shall dispose of, all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment or cancellation. If the Company shall acquire any of the Securities, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the Indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are surrendered to the Trustee for cancellation pursuant to this Section 2.12. No Securities shall be authenticated in lieu of or in exchange for any Securities cancelled as provided in this Section 2.12, except as expressly permitted by this Indenture.

 

2.13. PAYMENT OF INTEREST; DEFAULTED INTEREST; COMPUTATION OF INTEREST.

 

Except as otherwise provided as contemplated by Section 2.2 with respect to any Series of Securities, interest on any Security which is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date shall be paid to the Person in whose name that Security is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest, as provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate establishing the terms of such Series.

 

If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on the Securities, it shall pay the defaulted amounts, plus any interest payable on defaulted amounts pursuant to Section 4.1, to the Persons who are Securityholders on a subsequent special record date, which date shall be the 15th day next preceding the date fixed by the Company for the payment of defaulted interest, or the next succeeding Business Day if such date is not a Business Day. At least 15 days before the special record date, the Company shall mail or cause to be mailed to each Securityholder, with a copy to the Trustee, a notice that states the special record date, the payment date and the amount of defaulted interest, and interest payable on such defaulted interest, if any, to be paid.

 

Except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.2 for Securities of any Series, interest on the Securities of each Series shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months.

 

2.14. CUSIP NUMBER.

 

The Company in issuing the Securities may use one or more “CUSIP” numbers, and, if the Company does so, the Trustee shall use the CUSIP number(s) in notices of redemption or exchange as a convenience to Holders, PROVIDED, that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness or accuracy of the CUSIP number(s) printed in the notice or on the Securities, and that reliance may be placed only on the other identification numbers printed on the Securities, and that any such redemption or exchange shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of any such numbers.

 

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2.15. PROVISIONS FOR GLOBAL SECURITIES.

 

(a) A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, and the Depository for such Global Securities or Securities.

 

(b) Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.7 and in addition thereto, if, and only if the Depository (i) at any time is unwilling or unable to continue as Depository for such Global Security or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act and (ii) a successor Depository is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the date the Company is so informed in writing or becomes aware of the same, the Company promptly will execute and deliver to the Trustee definitive Securities, and the Trustee, upon receipt of a Company Request for the authentication and delivery of such definitive Securities (which the Company will promptly execute and deliver to the Trustee) and an Officers’ Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable, will authenticate and deliver definitive Securities, without charge, registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depository shall direct in writing (pursuant to instructions from its direct and indirect participants or otherwise) in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms. Upon the exchange of a Global Security for definitive Securities, such Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for definitive Securities, as provided in this Section 2.15(b), a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depository, by a nominee of such Depository to such Depository or another nominee of such Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository.

 

(c) Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

 

“This Security is a Global Security within the meaning of the Indenture hereinafter referred to, and is registered in the name of the Depository or a nominee of the Depository. This Security is exchangeable for Securities registered in the name of a Person other than the Depository or its nominee only in the limited circumstances described in the Indenture, and may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository to a nominee of the Depository, by a nominee of the Depository to the Depository or another nominee of the Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository.”